Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


Immune system changes linked to inflammatory bowel disease revealed

Scientists at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech have discovered some of the key molecular events in the immune system that contribute to inflammatory bowel disease.

The results, which help researchers move one step further in their efforts to develop new drugs to treat inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases, are reported in the November 2010 edition ( of the journal Mucosal Immunology from the Nature Publishing Group.

Inflammatory bowel disease starts when the gut initiates an abnormal immune response to some of the one hundred trillion or so bacteria that come into contact with the colon of the human body. More than 1 million people are affected by inflammatory bowel disease in North America alone and direct healthcare expenses for inflammatory bowel disease in the United States are estimated at more than $15 billion annually.

Earlier mathematical and computational work ( by the scientists pinpointed a special type of immune cell as a possible target for intervention strategies to fight inflammation-related disease in the gut. The immune cells identified in the earlier work, which are known as M1 or classically activated macrophages, cause inflammation and possess a specific molecule, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, that, when activated, favors a switch to a type of macrophage that reduces the impact of inflammation (alternatively activated macrophage or M2) . The activation of the receptor protein and the anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage switch plays a beneficial role in reducing the severity of the disease in the gut during experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease.

"We have been able to validate experimentally some of the key events that take place in the regulation of the mucosal immune system when inflammatory bowel disease is triggered in mice," said Josep Bassaganya-Riera, associate professor of immunology at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, leader of the Nutritional Immunology and Molecular Medicine Group in the institute's CyberInfrastructure Division, and principal investigator. "When we produce mice that lack the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma specifically found in macrophages, the severity of inflammatory bowel disease increases significantly. In parallel, we are able to observe the impact of the onset of disease on key inflammation-related genes and other molecules involved in inflammation and metabolism."

"In this study, we were able to use mouse Affymetrix GeneChips® to examine which genes were turned on and off under disease and non-disease conditions," said Clive Evans, director of the Core Laboratory Facility at the institute. "This gave us a comprehensive snap-shot of what is happening in the immune system of mice when inflammation-related disease takes hold in the gut."

"In addition to our observations of what is happening when inflammatory bowel disease is triggered in mice, we showed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in macrophages is essential for recovery from disease when the drug pioglitazone is used to treat it," said Raquel Hontecillas, assistant professor of immunology at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, and lead investigator of the study. "Our group has dissected the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma as an internal thermostat for inflammation in other cells involved in gut inflammation such as intestinal epithelial cells and T cells."

Some of the currently available therapies for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease in humans are effective in treating the disease but are linked to sometimes-drastic side effects in patients. The researchers hope to use their knowledge of the immune system and specific targets for repurposed drugs and naturally occurring compounds to develop safer alternatives for the long-term management of the disease.

"Our combined computer modeling and experimental validation approach, which is part of the work of our Center for Modeling Immunity to Enteric Pathogens, is already generating important clinical leads that should help us in our quest to deliver better therapies for infectious enteric diseases," concluded Bassaganya-Riera.

The research was funded by award number 5R01AT004308 of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine at the National Institutes of Health, European Commission grant number 224836, the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute-Fralin Commonwealth Research Initiative grants program, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Contracts No. HHSN272200900040C and HHSN272201000056C, and funds from the Nutritional Immunology and Molecular Medicine Laboratory.

About the Nutritional Immunology and Molecular Medicine Group

The Nutritional Immunology and Molecular Medicine Group conducts translational research aimed at developing novel therapeutic and prophylactic approaches for modulating immune and inflammatory responses. The group combines computational modeling, bioinformatics approaches, pre-clinical experimentation and human clinical studies to better understand the mechanisms of immune regulation at mucosal surfaces and ultimately accelerate the development of novel treatments for infectious and immune-mediated diseases. Learn more at:

Learn more about Josep Bassaganya-Riera at

VBI awarded $10.6 million from NIH to model immune responses to gut pathogens
Math model of colon inflammation singles out dangerous immune cells

Barry Whyte | EurekAlert!
Further information:

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht NIH scientists describe potential antibody treatment for multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae
14.03.2018 | NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

nachricht Researchers identify key step in viral replication
13.03.2018 | University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Locomotion control with photopigments

Researchers from Göttingen University discover additional function of opsins

Animal photoreceptors capture light with photopigments. Researchers from the University of Göttingen have now discovered that these photopigments fulfill an...

Im Focus: Surveying the Arctic: Tracking down carbon particles

Researchers embark on aerial campaign over Northeast Greenland

On 15 March, the AWI research aeroplane Polar 5 will depart for Greenland. Concentrating on the furthest northeast region of the island, an international team...

Im Focus: Unique Insights into the Antarctic Ice Shelf System

Data collected on ocean-ice interactions in the little-researched regions of the far south

The world’s second-largest ice shelf was the destination for a Polarstern expedition that ended in Punta Arenas, Chile on 14th March 2018. Oceanographers from...

Im Focus: ILA 2018: Laser alternative to hexavalent chromium coating

At the 2018 ILA Berlin Air Show from April 25–29, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT is showcasing extreme high-speed Laser Material Deposition (EHLA): A video documents how for metal components that are highly loaded, EHLA has already proved itself as an alternative to hard chrome plating, which is now allowed only under special conditions.

When the EU restricted the use of hexavalent chromium compounds to special applications requiring authorization, the move prompted a rethink in the surface...

Im Focus: Radar for navigation support from autonomous flying drones

At the ILA Berlin, hall 4, booth 202, Fraunhofer FHR will present two radar sensors for navigation support of drones. The sensors are valuable components in the implementation of autonomous flying drones: they function as obstacle detectors to prevent collisions. Radar sensors also operate reliably in restricted visibility, e.g. in foggy or dusty conditions. Due to their ability to measure distances with high precision, the radar sensors can also be used as altimeters when other sources of information such as barometers or GPS are not available or cannot operate optimally.

Drones play an increasingly important role in the area of logistics and services. Well-known logistic companies place great hope in these compact, aerial...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Industry & Economy
Event News

Ultrafast Wireless and Chip Design at the DATE Conference in Dresden

16.03.2018 | Event News

International Tinnitus Conference of the Tinnitus Research Initiative in Regensburg

13.03.2018 | Event News

International Virtual Reality Conference “IEEE VR 2018” comes to Reutlingen, Germany

08.03.2018 | Event News

Latest News

Wandering greenhouse gas

16.03.2018 | Earth Sciences

'Frequency combs' ID chemicals within the mid-infrared spectral region

16.03.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Biologists unravel another mystery of what makes DNA go 'loopy'

16.03.2018 | Life Sciences

Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>