Linalyl acetate, a fragrance chemical that is one of the main constituents of the essential oil of lavender, is not on the list of allergenic compounds pursuant to the EU Cosmetics Directive. Thus, it does not need to be declared on cosmetic products sold within the EU. Recent studies at the University of Gothenburg have shown that linalyl acetate can cause allergic eczema.
In accordance with the EU Cosmetics Directive, makeup, ointments, shampoo, deodorants, toothpaste and other products must contain a declaration of ingredients in order for consumers to avoid the substances to which they are allergic.
Cause of contact allergy
Linalyl acetate, a fragrance chemical, is an exception—it is not listed in the Directive and does not have to appear in declarations of ingredients. The substance is mildly allergenic. New studies at Sahlgrenska Academy have found that it can react with oxygen in the air to form strongly allergenic hydroperoxides. Thus, linalyl acetate may be a common cause of contact allergy.
The study included 1,717 subjects who were being assessed for eczema related to contact allergy. Approximately 2% of them had allergic reactions to oxidized linalyl acetate.
"That may seem like a small percentage," says Lina Hagvall, a researcher at the University of Gothenburg. "But it is approximately the same result as for the fragrance compounds listed in the Cosmetics Directive."
Broad range of tests
The subjects who reacted to oxidized linalyl acetate were also exposed to other fragrance compounds that are part of routine testing these days. A total of 57% of them had no allergic reaction.
"The trials suggest that a broad range of tests is required to detect contact allergies to fragrance compounds," Dr. Hagvall says. "Current tests do not identify the majority of people who have contact allergy to oxidized linalyl acetate.”
Hard to avoid
Because the substance is not declared on cosmetic products, consumers have trouble avoiding it, which can turn allergic eczema into a more severe, long-term condition.
According to the researchers, the study findings should lead to inclusion of oxidized linalyl acetate among the fragrance compounds used for diagnosis of contact allergy. The substance should also appear in the declaration of ingredients for cosmetic products.
"Air-oxidized linalyl acetate – An emerging fragrance allergen?" has been published in Contact Dermatitis.
Link to article: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cod.12350/pdf
FACTS ABOUT CONTACT ALLERGY
Contact allergy involves development of an immunological memory for chemicals in the environment. The allergy generally manifests as eczema in the area of contact with the foreign substance. The allergic reaction arises when the substance bonds with skin proteins and triggers an immune response. Long-term contact can cause chronic, difficult-to-treat eczema.
The most frequent source of contact allergy is exposure to fragrance compounds, metals and preservatives. The Cosmetics Directive lists 26 fragrance chemicals and 2 natural extracts that must appear in declarations of ingredients.
For additional information, feel free to contact:
Lina Hagvall, PhD, Researcher, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg
Office +46 31-342 13 38
Henrik Axlid | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft
Finnish research group discovers a new immune system regulator
23.02.2018 | University of Turku
Minimising risks of transplants
22.02.2018 | Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. This has made it possible to observe the interaction of multiple photons in a single such pulse with electrons in the inner orbital shell of an atom.
In order to observe the ultrafast electron motion in the inner shells of atoms with short light pulses, the pulses must not only be ultrashort, but very...
A group of researchers led by Andrea Cavalleri at the Max Planck Institute for Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) in Hamburg has demonstrated a new method enabling precise measurements of the interatomic forces that hold crystalline solids together. The paper Probing the Interatomic Potential of Solids by Strong-Field Nonlinear Phononics, published online in Nature, explains how a terahertz-frequency laser pulse can drive very large deformations of the crystal.
By measuring the highly unusual atomic trajectories under extreme electromagnetic transients, the MPSD group could reconstruct how rigid the atomic bonds are...
Quantum computers may one day solve algorithmic problems which even the biggest supercomputers today can’t manage. But how do you test a quantum computer to...
For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.
In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...
Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale
Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...
15.02.2018 | Event News
13.02.2018 | Event News
12.02.2018 | Event News
23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
23.02.2018 | Health and Medicine
23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy