Linalyl acetate, a fragrance chemical that is one of the main constituents of the essential oil of lavender, is not on the list of allergenic compounds pursuant to the EU Cosmetics Directive. Thus, it does not need to be declared on cosmetic products sold within the EU. Recent studies at the University of Gothenburg have shown that linalyl acetate can cause allergic eczema.
In accordance with the EU Cosmetics Directive, makeup, ointments, shampoo, deodorants, toothpaste and other products must contain a declaration of ingredients in order for consumers to avoid the substances to which they are allergic.
Cause of contact allergy
Linalyl acetate, a fragrance chemical, is an exception—it is not listed in the Directive and does not have to appear in declarations of ingredients. The substance is mildly allergenic. New studies at Sahlgrenska Academy have found that it can react with oxygen in the air to form strongly allergenic hydroperoxides. Thus, linalyl acetate may be a common cause of contact allergy.
The study included 1,717 subjects who were being assessed for eczema related to contact allergy. Approximately 2% of them had allergic reactions to oxidized linalyl acetate.
"That may seem like a small percentage," says Lina Hagvall, a researcher at the University of Gothenburg. "But it is approximately the same result as for the fragrance compounds listed in the Cosmetics Directive."
Broad range of tests
The subjects who reacted to oxidized linalyl acetate were also exposed to other fragrance compounds that are part of routine testing these days. A total of 57% of them had no allergic reaction.
"The trials suggest that a broad range of tests is required to detect contact allergies to fragrance compounds," Dr. Hagvall says. "Current tests do not identify the majority of people who have contact allergy to oxidized linalyl acetate.”
Hard to avoid
Because the substance is not declared on cosmetic products, consumers have trouble avoiding it, which can turn allergic eczema into a more severe, long-term condition.
According to the researchers, the study findings should lead to inclusion of oxidized linalyl acetate among the fragrance compounds used for diagnosis of contact allergy. The substance should also appear in the declaration of ingredients for cosmetic products.
"Air-oxidized linalyl acetate – An emerging fragrance allergen?" has been published in Contact Dermatitis.
Link to article: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cod.12350/pdf
FACTS ABOUT CONTACT ALLERGY
Contact allergy involves development of an immunological memory for chemicals in the environment. The allergy generally manifests as eczema in the area of contact with the foreign substance. The allergic reaction arises when the substance bonds with skin proteins and triggers an immune response. Long-term contact can cause chronic, difficult-to-treat eczema.
The most frequent source of contact allergy is exposure to fragrance compounds, metals and preservatives. The Cosmetics Directive lists 26 fragrance chemicals and 2 natural extracts that must appear in declarations of ingredients.
For additional information, feel free to contact:
Lina Hagvall, PhD, Researcher, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg
Office +46 31-342 13 38
Henrik Axlid | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft
Laser activated gold pyramids could deliver drugs, DNA into cells without harm
24.03.2017 | Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences
What does congenital Zika syndrome look like?
24.03.2017 | University of California - San Diego
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...
20.03.2017 | Event News
14.03.2017 | Event News
07.03.2017 | Event News
24.03.2017 | Materials Sciences
24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy