A new study in animals shows that using a compound to block the body's immune response greatly reduces disability after a stroke.
The study by scientists from the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health also showed that particular immune cells – CD4+ T-cells produce a mediator, called interleukin (IL) -21 that can cause further damage in stroke tissue. Moreover, normal mice, ordinarily killed or disabled by an ischemic stroke, were given a shot of a compound that blocks the action of IL-21. Brain scans and brain sections showed that the treated mice suffered little or no stroke damage.
"This is very exciting because we haven't had a new drug for stroke in decades, and this suggests a target for such a drug," says lead author Dr. Zsuzsanna Fabry, professor of pathology and laboratory medicine.
Stroke is the fourth-leading killer in the world and an important cause of permanent disability. In an ischemic stroke, a clot blocks the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the brain. But Fabry explains that much of the damage to brain cells occurs after the clot is removed or dissolved by medicine. Blood rushes back into the brain tissue, bringing with it immune cells called T-cells, which flock to the source of an injury.
The study shows that after a stroke, the injured brain cells provoke the CD4+ T-cells to produce a substance, IL-21, that kills the neurons in the blood-deprived tissue of the brain. The study gave new insight how stroke induces neural injury.
Fabry's co-author Dr. Matyas Sandor, professor of pathology and laboratory medicine, says that the final part of the study looked at brain tissue from people who had died following ischemic strokes. It found that CD4+ T-cells and their protein, IL-21 are in high concentration in areas of the brain damaged by the stroke.
Sandor says the similarity suggests that the protein that blocks IL-21 could become a treatment for stroke, and would likely be administered at the same time as the current blood-clot dissolving drugs.
"We don't have proof that it will work in humans," he says, "but similar accumulation of IL-21 producing cells suggests that it might."
Graduate student Benjamin S. D. Clarkson and scientist Changying Ling were key members of the UW research team, as was Dr. Dandan Sun, formerly of the UW neurosurgery department and now at the University of Pittsburgh, and Dr. Vijay Kuchroo, of the Harvard Medical School.
The paper was published this week in the Journal of Experimental Medicine. A link is available here: http://bit.ly/NToPfg
The study was supported by the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association, the UW Cellular and Molecular Pathology Graduate Program and the National Institutes of Health via grant numbers NS037570, NS076946, AI048087 and AI068730.
Susan Lampert Smith | EurekAlert!
Observing the cell's protein factories during self-assembly
15.06.2018 | Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin
Scientists unravel molecular mechanisms of Parkinson's disease
13.06.2018 | The Francis Crick Institute
Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.
Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...
The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.
Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.
An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.
Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...
Light detection and control lies at the heart of many modern device applications, such as smartphone cameras. Using graphene as a light-sensitive material for...
Water molecules exist in two different forms with almost identical physical properties. For the first time, researchers have succeeded in separating the two forms to show that they can exhibit different chemical reactivities. These results were reported by researchers from the University of Basel and their colleagues in Hamburg in the scientific journal Nature Communications.
From a chemical perspective, water is a molecule in which a single oxygen atom is linked to two hydrogen atoms. It is less well known that water exists in two...
13.06.2018 | Event News
08.06.2018 | Event News
05.06.2018 | Event News
18.06.2018 | Earth Sciences
18.06.2018 | Process Engineering
18.06.2018 | Life Sciences