A new study in animals shows that using a compound to block the body's immune response greatly reduces disability after a stroke.
The study by scientists from the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health also showed that particular immune cells – CD4+ T-cells produce a mediator, called interleukin (IL) -21 that can cause further damage in stroke tissue. Moreover, normal mice, ordinarily killed or disabled by an ischemic stroke, were given a shot of a compound that blocks the action of IL-21. Brain scans and brain sections showed that the treated mice suffered little or no stroke damage.
"This is very exciting because we haven't had a new drug for stroke in decades, and this suggests a target for such a drug," says lead author Dr. Zsuzsanna Fabry, professor of pathology and laboratory medicine.
Stroke is the fourth-leading killer in the world and an important cause of permanent disability. In an ischemic stroke, a clot blocks the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the brain. But Fabry explains that much of the damage to brain cells occurs after the clot is removed or dissolved by medicine. Blood rushes back into the brain tissue, bringing with it immune cells called T-cells, which flock to the source of an injury.
The study shows that after a stroke, the injured brain cells provoke the CD4+ T-cells to produce a substance, IL-21, that kills the neurons in the blood-deprived tissue of the brain. The study gave new insight how stroke induces neural injury.
Fabry's co-author Dr. Matyas Sandor, professor of pathology and laboratory medicine, says that the final part of the study looked at brain tissue from people who had died following ischemic strokes. It found that CD4+ T-cells and their protein, IL-21 are in high concentration in areas of the brain damaged by the stroke.
Sandor says the similarity suggests that the protein that blocks IL-21 could become a treatment for stroke, and would likely be administered at the same time as the current blood-clot dissolving drugs.
"We don't have proof that it will work in humans," he says, "but similar accumulation of IL-21 producing cells suggests that it might."
Graduate student Benjamin S. D. Clarkson and scientist Changying Ling were key members of the UW research team, as was Dr. Dandan Sun, formerly of the UW neurosurgery department and now at the University of Pittsburgh, and Dr. Vijay Kuchroo, of the Harvard Medical School.
The paper was published this week in the Journal of Experimental Medicine. A link is available here: http://bit.ly/NToPfg
The study was supported by the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association, the UW Cellular and Molecular Pathology Graduate Program and the National Institutes of Health via grant numbers NS037570, NS076946, AI048087 and AI068730.
Susan Lampert Smith | EurekAlert!
New malaria analysis method reveals disease severity in minutes
14.08.2017 | University of British Columbia
New type of blood cells work as indicators of autoimmunity
14.08.2017 | Instituto de Medicina Molecular
Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.
As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...
Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.
Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...
For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.
While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...
An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.
The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...
A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...
16.08.2017 | Event News
04.08.2017 | Event News
26.07.2017 | Event News
18.08.2017 | Life Sciences
18.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
18.08.2017 | Materials Sciences