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Glycemic Index Foods at Breakfast Can Control Blood Sugar Throughout the Day

Eating foods at breakfast that have a low glycemic index may help prevent a spike in blood sugar throughout the morning and after the next meal of the day, researchers said at the Institute of Food Technologists’ Wellness 12 meeting.

Eating foods at breakfast that have a low glycemic index may help prevent a spike in blood sugar throughout the morning and after the next meal of the day, researchers said at the Institute of Food Technologists' Wellness 12 meeting.

These breakfast foods also can increase feelings of satiety and fullness and may make people less likely to overeat throughout the day, acdcording to presentations Wednesday by Kantha Shelke, Ph.D., principal, Corvus Blue LLC, and Richard Mattes, M.P.H., R.D., distinguished professor of foods and nutrition at Purdue University.

The glycemic index ranks foods on the extent to which they raise blood sugar levels after eating. Foods with a high index are rapidly digested and result in high fluctuations in blood sugar levels. Foods with a low glycemic index produce gradual rises in blood sugar and insulin levels and are considered healthier, especially for people with diabetes.

Mattes' research specifically focused on the advantages of having almonds, a low glycemic index food, with the morning meal. In his study, published last year in the Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, participants who ate a breakfast containing whole almonds experienced longer feelings of fullness and had lower blood glucose concentrations after breakfast and lunch, compared to those who did not have a low-glycemic breakfast.

When a low glycemic food is added to the diet, people spontaneously choose to eat less at other times throughout the day. Mattes added that while the calories need to be taken into consideration as part of a person's overall diet, almonds can be incorporated in moderate amounts without an effect on body weight.

Both Mattes and Shelke stressed the importance of eating a healthy, low-glycemic breakfast in maintaining a healthy weight and blood sugar levels. A 2009 study found that about 30 percent of people skip breakfast one to three times per week. Among those who eat breakfast, cold cereal is the most popular (83 percent), followed by eggs (71 percent). In addition to low glycemic index, Dr. Shelke said the ideal breakfast for consumers has these attributes:

Pleasing texture
Fills you up for extended periods of time
Satiates quickly so less is consumed
Affordable for the whole family to eat every day
Delicious without making you feeling guilty
"This is a very tall order for food product manufacturers," Shelke said. "It takes a lot of skill and understanding."

While it may present challenges for food manufacturers, it is well worth it to develop these products because of the prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes in the United States and beyond. It is estimated that by 2030, more than 16 percent of the global population will have a blood sugar problem.

"Most of the risk factors are things that can be managed and modified," Shelke said. "We can reverse pre-diabetes and prevent it from becoming diabetes. Food has become the reason for what's ailing us, but it can actually be a solution in a number of different ways."

Low- and Non-Glycemic Foods that Promote Satiety

Rolled oats and groats (hulled and crushed grain, usually oats)
Whole grains
Nuts and seeds
Sweet potato
Barley B-glucan
Yam flour
Durum pasta
Vegetable flours
Chia / flax seed
Resistant starch

About IFT
The Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) is a nonprofit scientific society. Our individual members are professionals engaged in food science, food technology, and related professions in industry, academia, and government. IFT's mission is to advance the science of food, and our long-range vision is to ensure a safe and abundant food supply, contributing to healthier people everywhere.

For more than 70 years, the IFT has been unlocking the potential of the food science community by creating a dynamic global forum where members from more than 100 countries can share, learn, and grow. We champion the use of sound science across the food value chain through the exchange of knowledge, by providing education, and by furthering the advancement of the profession. IFT has offices in Chicago, Illinois and Washington, D.C.

Stephanie Callahan | EurekAlert!
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