Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Folic acid deficiency has multigenerational effects

30.09.2013
University of Calgary researchers discover folic acid deficiency in animals can have severe health consequences in grandchildren and great-grandchildren

Researchers from the universities of Calgary and Cambridge, UK, have discovered that a mutation in a gene necessary for the metabolism of folic acid not only impacts immediate offspring but can also have detrimental health effects, such as spina bifida and heart abnormalities, on subsequent generations.

The animal study, published this week in the journal Cell, also sheds light on the molecular mechanism of folic acid (also known as folate) during development.

About one in 1,200 children are born with spina bifida. The detrimental effects of folic acid deficiency during pregnancy on development are well known. As a result Canada, and many other countries, have implemented folate fortification programs which require folic acid to be added to cereal products. The aim has been to reduce the incidence of developmental problems, including spina bifida. However, until now, very little was known about how folic acid deficiency caused the diverse range of health problems in offspring.

"Fortification programs have reduced the risk of health effects but not eliminated them completely," says Dr. Jay Cross, with the faculties of medicine and veterinary medicine. "Based on our research, we now believe that it may take more than one generation to eliminate the health problems caused by folate deficiency. In addition, we need to be thinking not just about our own genes and how they impact our health and development, but also those of our descendents."

Cross, also a member of the Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, co-authored the study with Dr. Erica Watson from the University of Cambridge. Watson is a University of Calgary alumna and started the work during her PhD studies with Cross before moving to Cambridge.

Researchers from the university used mice for the study because their folic acid metabolism is very similar to humans. This enabled the researchers to explore how the molecular mechanism of folic acid deficiency impacted development, thereby causing developmental problems.

Dr. Roy Gravel, also a co-author of the study and member of the Alberta Childrens' Hospital Research Institute says this study provides a tremendous opportunity to look at the prevention of diseases like spina bifida. "The work began as a study of a gene called Mtrr in mice. The goal was to shed light on how a mutation in Mtrr would affect folate metabolism. The multigeneral effect we observed was completely unexpected," says Gravel.

The Mtrr gene encodes an enzyme that is key to the metabolism of folic acid and, when mutated, causes similar effects to dietary folic acid deficiency. The researchers found that when either the maternal grandmother or the maternal grandfather had this Mtrr mutation, their genetically normal grandchildren were at risk of a wide spectrum of developmental abnormalities, even if the mutated gene was not inherited through to the next generations.

These developmental abnormalities were also seen in the fourth and fifth generations of mice.

Through a series of experiments, researchers discovered that the developmental abnormalities were not passed down genetically. Instead, the defects were the result of "epigenetic" changes, which had been inherited. Epigenetics is a process which turns genes on and off through chemical modifications to DNA without changing the genetic code itself. Epigenetic inheritance refers to the passing along of these epigenetic marks as cells divide during development. It had been previously thought that epigenetic modifications were, for the most part, 'wiped clean' after each generation.

The researchers hypothesize that, for a yet unknown reason, some of these abnormal epigenetic marks caused by the Mtrr mutation escape this normal erasure and are inherited by the next generation. If the abnormal epigenetic marks that regulate genes important for development are inherited, then these generations may develop abnormalities as a result of the wrong genes being turned on or off.

"There have been several recent studies implicating folate in different types of human diseases, not just developmental abnormalities, and so our work provides insights into potential biochemical mechanism but also adds a layer of complexity in thinking about transgenerational effects of folate," says Cross.

"This was a very complex study and initially controversial for some. As a result, we could not have accomplished this work without key collaborations both here in Calgary and Cambridge."

The research for this study was supported by grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and Alberta Innovates-Health Solutions.

Media Contact

Gloria Visser-Niven
Manager, Marketing & Communications
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
403.210-6615
403.542-9444
gvissern@ucalgary.ca
About the University of Calgary
The University of Calgary is a leading Canadian university located in the nation's most enterprising city. The university has a clear strategic direction to become one of Canada's top five research universities by 2016, where research and innovative teaching go hand in hand, and where we fully engage the communities we both serve and lead. This strategy is called Eyes High, inspired by the university's Gaelic motto, which translates as 'I will lift up my eyes.'

For more information, visit ucalgary.ca. Stay up to date with University of Calgary news headlines on Twitter @UCalgary and in our media centre at ucalgary.ca/news/media.

Gloria Visser-Niven | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ucalgary.ca

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures
17.11.2017 | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

nachricht High speed video recording precisely measures blood cell velocity
15.11.2017 | ITMO University

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

Im Focus: Wrinkles give heat a jolt in pillared graphene

Rice University researchers test 3-D carbon nanostructures' thermal transport abilities

Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA detects solar flare pulses at Sun and Earth

17.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures

17.11.2017 | Health and Medicine

The importance of biodiversity in forests could increase due to climate change

17.11.2017 | Studies and Analyses

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>