Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Fine-tuning the flu vaccine for broader protection

09.08.2011
Study reveals features of influenza virus and our response to it that could reduce the need for annual vaccinations

An antibody that mimics features of the influenza virus's entry point into human cells could help researchers understand how to fine-tune the flu vaccine to protect against a broad range of virus strains. Such protection could potentially reduce the need to develop, produce, and distribute a new vaccine for each flu season.

A multi-institutional team led by Stephen C. Harrison, PhD, chief of the Division of Molecular Medicine at Children's Hospital Boston, report their work and its implications for improving influenza vaccination this week in the Early Edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

With each passing season, the two primary components of the influenza virus's outer coat, neuraminidase and hemagglutinin (the annual flu vaccine's primary target), mutate, allowing the virus to dodge any anti-flu immunity an individual may have generated in previous years. This evasion strategy, called antigenic drift, is why a new flu vaccine is necessary every year, a process that can take upwards of seven months.

From a public health perspective, an ideal influenza vaccine would protect against multiple strains of the virus, regardless of their hemagglutinin structure. The antibody, discovered by Harrison's collaborators at Duke University Medical Center and called CH65, gives new insights into how the immune system's response to hemagglutinin evolves over time, knowledge that could guide the development of just such a vaccine.

The researchers started with cells donated by an individual who received the flu vaccine for 2007. From those cells, they used genomic tools to generate a suite of antibodies, including CH65, that bound to and neutralized hemagglutinin from several seasonal flu strains. CH65 alone could bind to and neutralize hemagglutinin from 30 of the 36 strains tested.

"While it's unusual to find such broadly effective antibodies to the flu virus, they may actually be more common than we realize," noted Harrison, who is also an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. "What this tells us is that the human immune system can fine-tune its response to the flu and actually produce, albeit at a low frequency, antibodies that neutralize a whole series of strains."

CH65 mimics many key aspects of sialic acid, hemagglutinin's natural receptor, and binds to portions of hemagglutinin that the virus cannot mutate without reducing its ability to infect human cells. After comparing CH65 with other antibodies produced from the donor's cells, the team was able to deduce how the donor's anti-flu immune response had evolved to produce such broadly reactive antibodies as a consequence of multiple virus exposures over time.

With this knowledge, Harrison believes it may be possible to develop vaccines that actively direct the immune response to provide broad protection against multiple strains of the influenza virus, ideally by targeting the same portions of hemagglutinin as CH65.

"Developing a flu vaccine is currently a hit-or-miss enterprise," according to Harrison. "We vaccinate with a virus or part of a virus and hope that the immune response will evolve in a useful direction.

But for viruses like influenza that mutate rapidly," he continued, "we want to have a response that does a really good job at blocking both the strain of the virus in the vaccine and many related strains as well. These results point out what strategies we might employ to achieve that goal."

This study was supported by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the US Department of Energy, and the National Center for Research Resources and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health.

Children's Hospital Boston is home to the world's largest research enterprise based at a pediatric medical center, where its discoveries have benefited both children and adults since 1869. More than 1,100 scientists, including nine members of the National Academy of Sciences, 12 members of the Institute of Medicine and 13 members of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute comprise Children's research community. Founded as a 20-bed hospital for children, Children's Hospital Boston today is a 395 bed comprehensive center for pediatric and adolescent health care grounded in the values of excellence in patient care and sensitivity to the complex needs and diversity of children and families. Children's also is the primary pediatric teaching affiliate of Harvard Medical School. For more information about research and clinical innovation at Children's visit the Vector blog.

Children's Hospital Boston | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.childrenshospital.org

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Second cause of hidden hearing loss identified
20.02.2017 | Michigan Medicine - University of Michigan

nachricht Prospect for more effective treatment of nerve pain
20.02.2017 | Universität Zürich

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Switched-on DNA

20.02.2017 | Materials Sciences

Second cause of hidden hearing loss identified

20.02.2017 | Health and Medicine

Prospect for more effective treatment of nerve pain

20.02.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>