Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Expression of a single gene lets scientists easily grow hepatitis C virus in the lab

19.08.2015

Worldwide, 185 million people have chronic hepatitis C. Since the late 1980s, when scientists discovered the virus that causes the infection, they have struggled to find ways to grow it in human cells in the lab -- an essential part of learning how the virus works and developing new effective treatments.

In a study published in Nature on August 12, scientists led by The Rockefeller University's Charles M. Rice, Maurice R. and Corinne P. Greenberg Professor in Virology and head of the Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease, report that when they overexpressed a particular gene in human liver cancer cell lines, the virus could easily replicate. This discovery allows study of naturally occurring forms of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the lab.


Researchers engineered cultured cells to contain a red marker that moves into the nucleus upon HCV infection. Nothing happened when normal cells were exposed to HCV (top), but when the researchers expressed the protein SEC14L2, some nuclei changed color from blue to purple (bottom).

Credit: Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease at The Rockefeller University/Nature

"Being able to easily culture HCV in the lab has many important implications for basic science research," says Rice. "There is still much we don't understand about how the virus operates, and how it interacts with liver cells and the immune system. "

Scientists have long attempted to understand what makes HCV tick, and in 1999 a group of German scientists succeeded in coaxing modified forms of the virus to replicate in cells in the laboratory. However, it was soon discovered that these forms of the virus were able to replicate because they had acquired certain "adaptive" mutations.

This was true for the vast majority of all samples from patients, except one, and left scientists with a puzzling question for more than a decade: What prevents non-mutated HCV from replicating in laboratory-grown cell lines? Rice and colleagues hypothesized that one or more critical elements might be missing in these cell lines.

To test this idea, they screened a library of about 7,000 human genes to look for one whose expression would allow replication of non-mutated HCV. When the scientists expressed the gene SEC14L2, the virus replicated in its wild-type, non-mutated form. Even adding serum samples from HCV-infected patients to these engineered cell lines resulted in virus replication.

"Practically speaking, this means that if scientists want to study HCV from an infected patient, it's now possible to take a blood sample, inoculate the engineered cells, and grow that patient's form of the virus in the lab," says first author Mohsan Saeed, a postdoc in Rice's laboratory.

It's not entirely clear how the protein expressed by SEC14L2 works, says Saeed, but it appears to inhibit lipids from interacting with dangerous reactive oxygen species, a process that prevents HCV replication.

Recent advances in HCV treatment have made it possible for millions of people to be cured of the virus. "New therapies, however, are extremely expensive and not perfect," Saeed notes. "As more patients are treated, drug resistant forms of HCV are emerging. Having a cell culture system where patient isolates can be grown and tested for resistance or susceptibility to alternative antiviral drug combinations should be useful for optimizing re-treatment strategies for those that fail treatment."

Even though effective therapies for HCV do exist, there is still much we need to understand about the virus, adds Saeed -- and understanding how HCV interacts with its host cell can help scientists learn more about similar viruses for which effective treatments have yet to be developed. "The lessons learned from one disease can be true for other diseases as well," he observes.

Wynne Parry | EurekAlert!

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht 'Living bandages': NUST MISIS scientists develop biocompatible anti-burn nanofibers
16.02.2018 | National University of Science and Technology MISIS

nachricht New process allows tailor-made malaria research
16.02.2018 | Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: In best circles: First integrated circuit from self-assembled polymer

For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.

In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...

Im Focus: Demonstration of a single molecule piezoelectric effect

Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale

Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...

Im Focus: Hybrid optics bring color imaging using ultrathin metalenses into focus

For photographers and scientists, lenses are lifesavers. They reflect and refract light, making possible the imaging systems that drive discovery through the microscope and preserve history through cameras.

But today's glass-based lenses are bulky and resist miniaturization. Next-generation technologies, such as ultrathin cameras or tiny microscopes, require...

Im Focus: Stem cell divisions in the adult brain seen for the first time

Scientists from the University of Zurich have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. This study sheds light on how new neurons are produced throughout life.

The generation of new nerve cells was once thought to taper off at the end of embryonic development. However, recent research has shown that the adult brain...

Im Focus: Interference as a new method for cooling quantum devices

Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. Study published in Physical Review Letters

Quantum computer parts are sensitive and need to be cooled to very low temperatures. Their tiny size makes them particularly susceptible to a temperature...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

2nd International Conference on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys (HTSMAs)

15.02.2018 | Event News

Aachen DC Grid Summit 2018

13.02.2018 | Event News

How Global Climate Policy Can Learn from the Energy Transition

12.02.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

'Lipid asymmetry' plays key role in activating immune cells

20.02.2018 | Life Sciences

MRI technique differentiates benign breast lesions from malignancies

20.02.2018 | Medical Engineering

Major discovery in controlling quantum states of single atoms

20.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>