Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Expression of a single gene lets scientists easily grow hepatitis C virus in the lab

19.08.2015

Worldwide, 185 million people have chronic hepatitis C. Since the late 1980s, when scientists discovered the virus that causes the infection, they have struggled to find ways to grow it in human cells in the lab -- an essential part of learning how the virus works and developing new effective treatments.

In a study published in Nature on August 12, scientists led by The Rockefeller University's Charles M. Rice, Maurice R. and Corinne P. Greenberg Professor in Virology and head of the Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease, report that when they overexpressed a particular gene in human liver cancer cell lines, the virus could easily replicate. This discovery allows study of naturally occurring forms of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the lab.


Researchers engineered cultured cells to contain a red marker that moves into the nucleus upon HCV infection. Nothing happened when normal cells were exposed to HCV (top), but when the researchers expressed the protein SEC14L2, some nuclei changed color from blue to purple (bottom).

Credit: Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease at The Rockefeller University/Nature

"Being able to easily culture HCV in the lab has many important implications for basic science research," says Rice. "There is still much we don't understand about how the virus operates, and how it interacts with liver cells and the immune system. "

Scientists have long attempted to understand what makes HCV tick, and in 1999 a group of German scientists succeeded in coaxing modified forms of the virus to replicate in cells in the laboratory. However, it was soon discovered that these forms of the virus were able to replicate because they had acquired certain "adaptive" mutations.

This was true for the vast majority of all samples from patients, except one, and left scientists with a puzzling question for more than a decade: What prevents non-mutated HCV from replicating in laboratory-grown cell lines? Rice and colleagues hypothesized that one or more critical elements might be missing in these cell lines.

To test this idea, they screened a library of about 7,000 human genes to look for one whose expression would allow replication of non-mutated HCV. When the scientists expressed the gene SEC14L2, the virus replicated in its wild-type, non-mutated form. Even adding serum samples from HCV-infected patients to these engineered cell lines resulted in virus replication.

"Practically speaking, this means that if scientists want to study HCV from an infected patient, it's now possible to take a blood sample, inoculate the engineered cells, and grow that patient's form of the virus in the lab," says first author Mohsan Saeed, a postdoc in Rice's laboratory.

It's not entirely clear how the protein expressed by SEC14L2 works, says Saeed, but it appears to inhibit lipids from interacting with dangerous reactive oxygen species, a process that prevents HCV replication.

Recent advances in HCV treatment have made it possible for millions of people to be cured of the virus. "New therapies, however, are extremely expensive and not perfect," Saeed notes. "As more patients are treated, drug resistant forms of HCV are emerging. Having a cell culture system where patient isolates can be grown and tested for resistance or susceptibility to alternative antiviral drug combinations should be useful for optimizing re-treatment strategies for those that fail treatment."

Even though effective therapies for HCV do exist, there is still much we need to understand about the virus, adds Saeed -- and understanding how HCV interacts with its host cell can help scientists learn more about similar viruses for which effective treatments have yet to be developed. "The lessons learned from one disease can be true for other diseases as well," he observes.

Wynne Parry | EurekAlert!

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Hot cars can hit deadly temperatures in as little as one hour
24.05.2018 | Arizona State University

nachricht 3D images of cancer cells in the body: Medical physicists from Halle present new method
16.05.2018 | Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Powerful IT security for the car of the future – research alliance develops new approaches

The more electronics steer, accelerate and brake cars, the more important it is to protect them against cyber-attacks. That is why 15 partners from industry and academia will work together over the next three years on new approaches to IT security in self-driving cars. The joint project goes by the name Security For Connected, Autonomous Cars (SecForCARs) and has funding of €7.2 million from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Infineon is leading the project.

Vehicles already offer diverse communication interfaces and more and more automated functions, such as distance and lane-keeping assist systems. At the same...

Im Focus: Molecular switch will facilitate the development of pioneering electro-optical devices

A research team led by physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has developed molecular nanoswitches that can be toggled between two structurally different states using an applied voltage. They can serve as the basis for a pioneering class of devices that could replace silicon-based components with organic molecules.

The development of new electronic technologies drives the incessant reduction of functional component sizes. In the context of an international collaborative...

Im Focus: LZH showcases laser material processing of tomorrow at the LASYS 2018

At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.

At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...

Im Focus: Self-illuminating pixels for a new display generation

There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?

At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...

Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

In focus: Climate adapted plants

25.05.2018 | Event News

Save the date: Forum European Neuroscience – 07-11 July 2018 in Berlin, Germany

02.05.2018 | Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

In focus: Climate adapted plants

25.05.2018 | Event News

Flow probes from the 3D printer

25.05.2018 | Machine Engineering

Less is more? Gene switch for healthy aging found

25.05.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>