A small study of obese children enrolled in after-school exercise programs showed 12 weeks of vigorous exercise resulted in stronger bones, improved insulin sensitivity (reduced diabetes risk) and less of the most-deadly belly, or visceral, fat, Georgia Health Sciences University researchers report.
It also indicated that blood levels of the hormone osteocalcin, made by bone-producing osteoblasts, might be a good indicator of how things are going in all three areas, said Dr. Norman Pollock, bone biologist at GHSU's Georgia Prevention Institute.
Pollock's finding is some of the earliest human evidence of this crosstalk among the divergent cell types. Dr. Gerard Karsenty, Chairman of Genetics and Development at Columbia University Medical Center, provided the first evidence of their conversation in animals. In those studies, animals receiving osteocalcin experienced improved insulin sensitivity, less belly fat and denser bones. Osteocalcin levels have primarily been associated with bone growth.
The work earned Pollock a 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research Young Investigator Award. He is presenting the finding during the society's annual September meeting in San Diego.
There have been pieces of evidence of this communication in humans: people with diabetes get a lot of bone fractures; those with more visceral fat are at risk for diabetes; and bone cells have insulin receptors. Ask Pollock why a bone cell would have an insulin receptor and he says it's a question that many are trying to answer with studies such as this one.
"The idea is that bones can possibly sense environmental stimuli such as being physically active or sedentary and dictate energy regulation accordingly," he said. The reality is bones get bigger and stronger with exercise and they appear to be sharing the good news. "When osteocalcin is released in your blood, that hormone is talking back to the adipocytes, the cells that store fat, and the pancreatic cells that release insulin to improve energy metabolism." Bone researchers like Pollock have previously believed bones were just listening.
His study looked at children who were inactive as well as those who exercised 20 or 40 minutes daily. Osteocalcin levels were measured at the start and finish of the 12-week period in addition to standard assessments such as a glucose tolerance test for insulin sensitivity. They found a consistent dose-response so that the children who exercised the most experienced the most bone formation, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced visceral and total body fat.
Pollock notes that bone and fat cells do have a common ancestry: they are both derived from mesenchymal stem cells. "It's possible that children's early lifestyle habits and experiences may induce alterations in body composition and predispose them to a lifetime of obesity," he said. "As parents, we must ensure that our children balance out their screen time with enjoyable physical activity."
Toni Baker | EurekAlert!
Biofilm discovery suggests new way to prevent dangerous infections
23.05.2017 | University of Texas at Austin
Another reason to exercise: Burning bone fat -- a key to better bone health
19.05.2017 | University of North Carolina Health Care
Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....
Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.
The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....
An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.
We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...
Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.
Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...
An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...
24.05.2017 | Event News
23.05.2017 | Event News
22.05.2017 | Event News
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy