Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New Evidence Strengthens Link between Cigarette Smoke Exposure and Poor Infant Health

05.11.2008
The damaging effects of smoking and smoke exposure can be seen at any age. Pediatricians have even noted these negative effects in various stages of infant development.

The consequences of maternal smoke exposure during pregnancy can range from higher rates of prematurity to increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome. Two new studies and an accompanying editorial soon to be published in The Journal of Pediatrics examine several physical and behavioral effects of cigarette smoke exposure on infants.

In an attempt to understand the relationship between maternal smoking and certain birth defects, Dr. Gary Shaw of the March of Dimes and colleagues from institutes in Norway, Holland, and Texas, studied serum samples collected between 2003 and 2005 from pregnant women enrolled in the California Expanded AFP (alpha fetoprotein) program. The researchers measured the levels of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, to determine whether the mothers smoked during pregnancy. They found that women who smoked during pregnancy were nearly 2.5 times more likely to have babies with oral clefts. According to Dr. Shaw, “Babies with oral clefts require significant medical care–often four surgeries by age two–and may have speech, hearing, and feeding problems.”

In a related study, Dr. Laura Stroud and colleagues from Brown University studied the effects of cigarette smoke exposure on infant behavior. The researchers studied 56 otherwise healthy infants and used questionnaires and cotinine measurements to determine cigarette smoke exposure. They found that the 28 babies who had been exposed to cigarette smoke were more irritable and difficult to sooth than the 28 babies who were not exposed. Dr. Stroud stresses the importance of cessation programs for smoking mothers, as well as programs to help new mothers manage a baby who is difficult to soothe.

Offering a fresh perspective in their related editorial, Dr. Cynthia Bearer of the University of Maryland and Matthew Stefanak of the Mahoning County District Board of Health in Ohio consider the findings of the two studies as further evidence that smoking is a major pediatric problem. Citing the fact that 90% of smokers start smoking by the age of 18, Dr. Bearer sees prevention as the best solution and stresses the need to stop smoking before it starts. According to Dr. Bearer, “Proven prevention measures include having family dinners and focusing on the negative body impact of smoking.” She suggests that the graphic portrayal of the damaging effects of tobacco use on health and physical attractiveness may be effective in deterring teens from smoking. Because parents who actively disapprove of smoking can help their children avoid the harmful effects of cigarette smoke exposure, Dr. Bearer encourages parents to take an active role in smoking prevention.

These studies are reported in the following:

• “Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Newborn Neurobehavior: Effects at 10-27 Days” by Laura R. Stroud, PhD, Rachel L. Paster, BA, George D. Papandonatos, Raymond Niaura, PhD, Amy L. Salisbury, PhD, Cynthia Battle, PhD, Linda L. Lagasse, PhD, and Barry Lester, PhD. DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.200807.048

• “Mid-Pregnancy Cotinine and Risks of Orofacial Clefts and Neural Tube Defects” by Gary M. Shaw, DrPH, Suzan L. Carmichael, PhD, Stein Emil Vollset, DrPH, Wei Yang, MD, Richard H. Finnell, PhD, Henk Blom, PhD, Øivind Midttun, PhD, and Per M. Ueland, MD. DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.08.006

The accompanying editorial is:

• “Looking Ahead to a Tobacco-Free Generation” by Cynthia Bearer, MD, PhD, and Matthew Stefanak, III, MPH. DOI 10.1016/j/jpeds.2008.09.049

Brigid Huey | alfa
Further information:
http://www.elsevier.com

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Indications of Psychosis Appear in Cortical Folding
26.04.2018 | Universität Basel

nachricht GLUT5 fluorescent probe fingerprints cancer cells
20.04.2018 | Michigan Technological University

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Why we need erasable MRI scans

New technology could allow an MRI contrast agent to 'blink off,' helping doctors diagnose disease

Magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, is a widely used medical tool for taking pictures of the insides of our body. One way to make MRI scans easier to read is...

Im Focus: BAM@Hannover Messe: innovative 3D printing method for space flight

At the Hannover Messe 2018, the Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und-prüfung (BAM) will show how, in the future, astronauts could produce their own tools or spare parts in zero gravity using 3D printing. This will reduce, weight and transport costs for space missions. Visitors can experience the innovative additive manufacturing process live at the fair.

Powder-based additive manufacturing in zero gravity is the name of the project in which a component is produced by applying metallic powder layers and then...

Im Focus: Molecules Brilliantly Illuminated

Physicists at the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics, which is jointly run by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, have developed a high-power laser system that generates ultrashort pulses of light covering a large share of the mid-infrared spectrum. The researchers envisage a wide range of applications for the technology – in the early diagnosis of cancer, for instance.

Molecules are the building blocks of life. Like all other organisms, we are made of them. They control our biorhythm, and they can also reflect our state of...

Im Focus: Spider silk key to new bone-fixing composite

University of Connecticut researchers have created a biodegradable composite made of silk fibers that can be used to repair broken load-bearing bones without the complications sometimes presented by other materials.

Repairing major load-bearing bones such as those in the leg can be a long and uncomfortable process.

Im Focus: Writing and deleting magnets with lasers

Study published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces is the outcome of an international effort that included teams from Dresden and Berlin in Germany, and the US.

Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) together with colleagues from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Virginia...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

IWOLIA: A conference bringing together German Industrie 4.0 and French Industrie du Futur

09.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Why we need erasable MRI scans

26.04.2018 | Medical Engineering

Balancing nuclear and renewable energy

26.04.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Researchers 3-D print electronics and cells directly on skin

26.04.2018 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>