Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Drug shows early promise in treating seizures

18.11.2013
A study out today in the journal Nature Medicine suggests a potential new treatment for the seizures that often plague children with genetic metabolic disorders and individuals undergoing liver failure. The discovery hinges on a new understanding of the complex molecular chain reaction that occurs when the brain is exposed to too much ammonia.

The study shows that elevated levels of ammonia in the blood overwhelm the brain’s defenses, ultimately causing nerve cells to become overexcited. The researchers have also discovered that bumetanide – a diuretic drug used to treat high blood pressure – can restore normal electrical activity in the brains of mice with the condition and prevent seizures.

"Ammonia is a ubiquitous waste product of regular protein metabolism, but it can accumulate in toxic levels in individuals with metabolic disorders," said Maiken Nedergaard, M.D., D.M.Sc., co-director of the University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC) Center for Translational Neuromedicine and lead author of the article. "It appears that the key to preventing the debilitating neurological effects of ammonia toxicity is to correct a molecular malfunction which causes nerve cells in the brain to become chemically unbalanced."

In healthy people, ammonia is processed in the liver, converted to urea, and expelled from the body in urine. Because it is a gas, ammonia can slip through the blood-brain-barrier and make its way into brain tissue. Under normal circumstances, the brain’s housekeeping cells – called astrocytes – sweep up this unwanted ammonia and convert it into a compound called glutamine which can be more easily expelled from the brain.

However, individuals with certain genetic metabolic disorders and people with impaired liver function because of chronic hepatitis, alcoholism, acetaminophen overdose, and other toxic liver conditions cannot remove ammonia from their bodies quickly enough. The result is a larger than normal concentration of ammonia in the blood, a condition called hyperammonemia.

When too much ammonia makes its way into the central nervous system, it can lead to tremors, seizures and, in extreme cases, can cause comas and even lead to death. In children with metabolic disorders the frequent seizures can lead to long-term neurological impairment.

While ammonia has long been assumed to be the culprit behind the neurological problems associated with inherited metabolic disorders and liver failure, the precise mechanisms by which it triggers seizures and comas have not been fully understood. The new study reveals that ammonia causes a chain of events that alters the chemistry and electrical activity of the brain’s nerve cells, causing them to fire in uncontrolled bursts.

One of the keys to unraveling the effects of ammonia on the brain has been new imagining technologies such as two-photon microscopy which allow researchers to watch this phenomenon in real time in the living brains of mice. As suspected, they observed that when high levels of ammonia enter the brain, astrocytes become quickly overwhelmed and cannot remove it fast enough.

The abundant ammonia in the brain mimics the function of potassium, an important player in neurotransmission, and tricks neurons into becoming depolarized. This makes it more likely that electrical activity in the brain will exceed the threshold necessary to trigger seizures.

Furthermore, the researchers observed that one of the neuron’s key molecular gatekeepers – a transporter known as NKCC1 – was also fooled into thinking that the ammonia was potassium. As a result, it went into overdrive, loading neurons with too much chloride. This in turn prevents the cells from stabilizing itself after spikes in activity, keeping the cells in a heightened level of electrical "excitability."

The team found that the drug bumetanide, a known NKCC1 inhibitor, blocked this process and prevented the cells from overloading with chloride. By knocking down this "secondary" cellular effect of ammonia, the researchers were able to control the seizures in the mice and prolong their survival.

"The neurologic impact of hyperammonemia is a tremendous clinical problem without an effective medical solution," said Nedergaard. "The fact that bumetanide is already approved for use gives us a tremendous head start in terms of developing a potential treatment for this condition. This study provides a framework to further explore the therapeutic potential of this and other NKCC1 inhibitors."

Additional co-authors include Fushun Wang, Maria Cotrina, Michel Chen, and Ning Kang with URMC, Vinita Rangroo Thrane, Alexander Thrane and Erlend Nagelhus with the University of Oslo in Norway, and Nathan Smith with the University of Utah. The study was supported with funding from the National Institutes of Health, the Research Council of Norway, the Nordic Center of Excellence Program, the Letten Foundation, and the Fulbright Foundation.

Mark Michaud | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.rochester.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht 'Living bandages': NUST MISIS scientists develop biocompatible anti-burn nanofibers
16.02.2018 | National University of Science and Technology MISIS

nachricht New process allows tailor-made malaria research
16.02.2018 | Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Demonstration of a single molecule piezoelectric effect

Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale

Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...

Im Focus: Hybrid optics bring color imaging using ultrathin metalenses into focus

For photographers and scientists, lenses are lifesavers. They reflect and refract light, making possible the imaging systems that drive discovery through the microscope and preserve history through cameras.

But today's glass-based lenses are bulky and resist miniaturization. Next-generation technologies, such as ultrathin cameras or tiny microscopes, require...

Im Focus: Stem cell divisions in the adult brain seen for the first time

Scientists from the University of Zurich have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. This study sheds light on how new neurons are produced throughout life.

The generation of new nerve cells was once thought to taper off at the end of embryonic development. However, recent research has shown that the adult brain...

Im Focus: Interference as a new method for cooling quantum devices

Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. Study published in Physical Review Letters

Quantum computer parts are sensitive and need to be cooled to very low temperatures. Their tiny size makes them particularly susceptible to a temperature...

Im Focus: Autonomous 3D scanner supports individual manufacturing processes

Let’s say the armrest is broken in your vintage car. As things stand, you would need a lot of luck and persistence to find the right spare part. But in the world of Industrie 4.0 and production with batch sizes of one, you can simply scan the armrest and print it out. This is made possible by the first ever 3D scanner capable of working autonomously and in real time. The autonomous scanning system will be on display at the Hannover Messe Preview on February 6 and at the Hannover Messe proper from April 23 to 27, 2018 (Hall 6, Booth A30).

Part of the charm of vintage cars is that they stopped making them long ago, so it is special when you do see one out on the roads. If something breaks or...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

2nd International Conference on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys (HTSMAs)

15.02.2018 | Event News

Aachen DC Grid Summit 2018

13.02.2018 | Event News

How Global Climate Policy Can Learn from the Energy Transition

12.02.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Fingerprints of quantum entanglement

16.02.2018 | Information Technology

'Living bandages': NUST MISIS scientists develop biocompatible anti-burn nanofibers

16.02.2018 | Health and Medicine

Hubble sees Neptune's mysterious shrinking storm

16.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>