Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Discovery may lead to new treatments for allergic diseases

12.11.2013
A collaboration among researchers in Israel and the United States has resulted in the discovery of a new pathway that has broad implications for treating allergic diseases – particularly eosinophil-associated disorders.

The researchers from Tel Aviv University and Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center have discovered how this pathway kills eosinophils before they can cause havoc.

Eosinophils are normal cellular components of the blood, but when the body produces too many eosinophils they can cause a variety of eosinophilic disorders. These are disorders involving chronic inflammation resulting in tissue damage, often in the gastrointestinal system.

The study is published online in the journal Nature Immunology.

"The fundamental knowledge we have gained may one day yield new therapies to treat devastating eosinophilic disorders," says Ariel Munitz, PhD, a researcher at the department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology at the Sackler School of Medicine at Tel Aviv University and corresponding author of the study.

Eosinophils are regulated by interleukin 5 (IL-5), a protein that triggers eosinophils to leave the bone marrow and enter the bloodstream, where they can reach various organs. Dr. Munitz and Marc Rothenberg, MD, PhD, director of Allergy and Immunology at Cincinnati Children's, have identified a pathway for counterbalancing what happens when IL-5 triggers eosinophils. The newly identified pathway involves a key checkpoint controlled by a pair of proteins, PIR-A and PIR-B, which the researchers now show have a critical role in eosinophil development.

PIR-A induces eosinophils to die and thus is in a perpetual tug-of-war with survival and growth signals driven by IL-5. The researchers discovered that PIR-A is dominant in this battle but that cell death doesn't occur because PIR-B inhibits its actions. For PIR-A to win the battle and cause cells to die, PIR-B must be shut down.

The researchers studied asthmatic mice and discovered that asthmatic mice without PIR-B had little expansion of eosinophils in their blood and lungs and less asthmatic inflammation in their lungs than normal mice. The lack of PIR-B kept eosinophils from reaching harmful levels. The researchers hope that scientists can now target PIR-A to enhance its ability to kill eosinophils or weaken PIR-B so that it inhibits PIR-A to a lesser extent.

The study was led by Netali Baruch-Morgenstern and Dana Shik from the Munitz lab. They are graduate students at Tel Aviv University who spent part of their training in Dr. Rothenberg's lab at Cincinnati Children's. Dr. Munitz is a former research fellow in Dr. Rothenberg's lab.

The study was funded in part by a grant from the United States-Israel Binational Science Foundation (grant number 2009222), which promotes scientific relations between the U.S. and Israel by supporting collaborative research projects in a wide area of basic and applied scientific fields.

Funding also came from the FP7 Marie-Curie Reintegration grant (grant number 256311), the Israel Science Foundation (grant numbers 955/11 and 1708/11), the Israel Cancer Research Foundation Research Career Development Award, the Fritz Thyssen Foundation, the US-Israel Bi-national Science Foundation, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, (R01AI083450, R37AI045898), CURED Foundation, FARE, and Buckeye Foundation.

The study also is the result of the Israel Exchange Program (IEP) at Cincinnati Children's. The IEP is a collaboration with leading Israeli institutions to improve clinical care for children, train pediatric providers and researchers, advance scientific research and make technological breakthroughs that benefit children throughout the world. Collaborations include Israeli and Cincinnati Children's physicians jointly treating patients with complex conditions in Cincinnati and Israel; clinical and research postdoctoral fellowships at Cincinnati Children's for Israelis; short-term training opportunities at Cincinnati Children's for Israeli physicians, nurses, students, paraprofessionals and hospital administrators; grants to support collaborative research; co-sponsorship of conferences and research symposia in Israel and Cincinnati; and technology collaborations with Israeli start-ups and universities.

Related links

Munitz lab: http://www.tau.ac.il/~arielm/Ariel_Munitz,_PhD/Welcome.html

Rothenberg lab: http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/research/divisions/a/allergy-immunology/labs/rothenberg/default/

Rothenberg lab Facebook page: http://www.facebook.com/RothenbergEosinophilicLab

Cincinnati Center for Eosinophilic Disorders: http://www.cchmc.org/cced

Israel Exchange Program: http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/service/g/global/israel/default/

About Cincinnati Children's:

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center ranks third in the nation among all Honor Roll hospitals in U.S.News and World Report's 2013 Best Children's Hospitals ranking. It is ranked #1 for cancer and in the top 10 for nine of 10 pediatric specialties. Cincinnati Children's, a non-profit organization, is one of the top three recipients of pediatric research grants from the National Institutes of Health, and a research and teaching affiliate of the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. The medical center is internationally recognized for improving child health and transforming delivery of care through fully integrated, globally recognized research, education and innovation. Additional information can be found at http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org. Connect on the Cincinnati Children's blog, via Facebook and on Twitter.

Nick Miller | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.cchmc.org

Further reports about: Gates Foundation Immunology Medical Wellness Nature Immunology

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Investigators may unlock mystery of how staph cells dodge the body's immune system
22.09.2017 | Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

nachricht Monitoring the heart's mitochondria to predict cardiac arrest?
21.09.2017 | Boston Children's Hospital

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: The pyrenoid is a carbon-fixing liquid droplet

Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.

A warming planet

Im Focus: Highly precise wiring in the Cerebral Cortex

Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.

The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...

Im Focus: Tiny lasers from a gallery of whispers

New technique promises tunable laser devices

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...

Im Focus: Ultrafast snapshots of relaxing electrons in solids

Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!

When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...

Im Focus: Quantum Sensors Decipher Magnetic Ordering in a New Semiconducting Material

For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.

Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

“Lasers in Composites Symposium” in Aachen – from Science to Application

19.09.2017 | Event News

I-ESA 2018 – Call for Papers

12.09.2017 | Event News

EMBO at Basel Life, a new conference on current and emerging life science research

06.09.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Rainbow colors reveal cell history: Uncovering β-cell heterogeneity

22.09.2017 | Life Sciences

Penn first in world to treat patient with new radiation technology

22.09.2017 | Medical Engineering

Calculating quietness

22.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>