Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Dana-Farber Scientists find potential loophole in pancreatic cancer defenses

28.03.2013
Tumors rely on unusual metabolic pathway that might be blocked with drugs
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute scientists and colleagues have discovered that pancreatic cancer cells' growth and spread are fueled by an unusual metabolic pathway that someday might be blocked with targeted drugs to control the deadly cancer.

Cancer cells are known to "rewire" their metabolic circuits differently from normal cells to provide energy for cancerous growth. A study published today in Nature reveals that pancreatic tumor cells are dependent on an amino acid, glutamine, which they utilize via a molecular pathway that has no apparent backup system.

"Pancreatic cancer cells have painted themselves into a metabolic bottleneck," said Dana-Farber's Alec Kimmelman, MD, PhD, co-senior author of the publication with Lewis Cantley, PhD, of Weill Cornell Medical College. Their research showed "that if you suppress any enzyme in that pathway, the cancer cells cannot effectively compensate and they can no longer grow," Kimmelman said.

Moreover, the investigators said, this novel glutamine pathway in pancreatic tumors does not appear to be important for normal cells, suggesting that inhibitor drugs could block cancer cells' growth without harming healthy tissues and organs.

"We don't have a drug to do this in humans," Kimmelman said, "but we are working on inhibitors of enzymes in the glutamine pathway."

The research showed that the cancer gene KRAS, which is the "signature" genetic mutation occurring in pancreatic cancer, directs the metabolic rewiring that creates the tumors' dependence on the glutamine pathway. KRAS, Kimmelman explained, changes the expression of key enzymes that maintain this pathway.

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal and treatment-resistant of all cancers, with a dismal survival rate, and scientists have been searching for any vulnerability that could be exploited. One of the newer strategies in cancer research is studying the metabolic differences between cancer cells and normal cells with the goal of depriving tumors of their fuel.

In order to grow, cells must prevent the accumulation of damaging oxygen "free radicals," and they do so by maintaining a chemical "redox balance." The researchers found that when they blocked any of several enzyme reactions in the glutamine pathway, it undermined redox balance and suppressed the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells transplanted to mice.

If drugs can be developed to shut down the glutamine pathway, Kimmelman suggested, they might make pancreatic tumors more susceptible to standard treatments, such as radiation and chemotherapy, that cause free radicals to accumulate in cancer cells.
Co-first authors of the report are Jaekyoung Son, PhD, in the Kimmelman lab, and Costas Lyssiotis, PhD in the Cantley lab.

The research was supported in part by National Cancer Institute grant RO1 CA157490 and grants T32 CA009382-26 and P01 CA117969.

--Written by Richard Saltus, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

About Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (http://www.dana-farber.org) is a principal teaching affiliate of the Harvard Medical School and is among the leading cancer research and care centers in the United States. It is a founding member of the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center (DF/HCC), designated a comprehensive cancer center by the National Cancer Institute. It provides adult cancer care with Brigham and Women's Hospital as Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center and it provides pediatric care with Boston Children's Hospital as Dana-Farber/Children's Hospital Cancer Center. Dana-Farber is the top ranked cancer center in New England, according to U.S. News & World Report, and one of the largest recipients among independent hospitals of National Cancer Institute and National Institutes of Health grant funding. Follow Dana-Farber on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/danafarbercancerinstitute and on Twitter: @danafarber.

Teresa Herbert | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.dfci.harvard.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Nanoparticles as a Solution against Antibiotic Resistance?
15.12.2017 | Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

nachricht Plasmonic biosensors enable development of new easy-to-use health tests
14.12.2017 | Aalto University

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First-of-its-kind chemical oscillator offers new level of molecular control

DNA molecules that follow specific instructions could offer more precise molecular control of synthetic chemical systems, a discovery that opens the door for engineers to create molecular machines with new and complex behaviors.

Researchers have created chemical amplifiers and a chemical oscillator using a systematic method that has the potential to embed sophisticated circuit...

Im Focus: Long-lived storage of a photonic qubit for worldwide teleportation

MPQ scientists achieve long storage times for photonic quantum bits which break the lower bound for direct teleportation in a global quantum network.

Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor...

Im Focus: Electromagnetic water cloak eliminates drag and wake

Detailed calculations show water cloaks are feasible with today's technology

Researchers have developed a water cloaking concept based on electromagnetic forces that could eliminate an object's wake, greatly reducing its drag while...

Im Focus: Scientists channel graphene to understand filtration and ion transport into cells

Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.

To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...

Im Focus: Towards data storage at the single molecule level

The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.

Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

See, understand and experience the work of the future

11.12.2017 | Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

AKL’18: The opportunities and challenges of digitalization in the laser industry

07.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Engineers program tiny robots to move, think like insects

15.12.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

One in 5 materials chemistry papers may be wrong, study suggests

15.12.2017 | Materials Sciences

New antbird species discovered in Peru by LSU ornithologists

15.12.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>