Brain MRI exams are often performed with a gadolinium-based contrast medium (Gd-CM). Gadolinium's paramagnetic properties make it useful for MRI, but the toxicity of the gadolinium ion means it must be chemically bonded with non-metal ions so that it can be carried through the kidneys and out of the body before the ion is released in tissue. Gd-CM is considered safe in patients with normal kidney function.
MR images in 45-year-old woman with glioblastoma treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. (a) Unenhanced T1-weighted image shows high-signal-intensity globus pallidus. Standard ROIs were placed around globus pallidus and thalamus. (b) Fast spin-echo T2-weighted image at same level as a. (c) Unenhanced T1-weighted image shows high-signal-intensity dentate nucleus. Standard ROIs were placed around dentate nucleus and pons. (d) Fast spin-echo T2-weighted image at same level as c.
Credit: Radiological Society of North America
However, in recent years, clinicians in Japan noticed that patients with a history of multiple administrations of Gd-CM showed areas of high intensity, or hyperintensity, on MRI in two brain regions: the dentate nucleus (DN) and globus pallidus (GP). The precise clinical ramifications of hyperintensity are not known, but hyperintensity in the DN has been associated with multiple sclerosis, while hyperintensity of the GP is linked with hepatic dysfunction and several diseases.
To learn more, the researchers compared unenhanced T1-weighted MR images (T1WI) of 19 patients who had undergone six or more contrast-enhanced brain scans with 16 patients who had received six or fewer unenhanced scans. The hyperintensity of both the DN and the GP correlated with the number of Gd-CM administrations.
"Hyperintensity in the DN and GP on unenhanced MRI may be a consequence of the number of previous Gd-CM administrations," said lead author Tomonori Kanda, M.D., Ph.D., from Teikyo University School of Medicine in Tokyo and the Hyogo Cancer Center in Akashi, Japan. "Because gadolinium has a high signal intensity in the body, our data may suggest that the toxic gadolinium component remains in the body even in patients with normal renal function."
Dr. Kanda noted that because patients with multiple sclerosis tend to undergo numerous contrast-enhanced brain MRI scans, the hyperintensity of the DN seen in these patients may have more to do with the large cumulative gadolinium dose than the disease itself.
The mechanisms by which Gd-CM administration causes hyperintensity of the DN and GP remain unclear, Dr. Kanda said. Previous studies on animals and humans have shown that the ion can be retained in bone and tissue for several days or longer after administration.
"The hyperintensity of DN and GP on unenhanced T1WI may be due to gadolinium deposition in the brain independent of renal function, and the deposition may remain in the brain for a long time," Dr. Kanda suggested.
Dr. Kanda emphasized that there is currently no proof that gadolinium is responsible for hyperintensity on brain MRI. Further research based on autopsy specimens and animal experiments will be needed to clarify the relationship and determine if the patients with MRI hyperintensity in their brains have symptoms.
"Because patients who have multiple contrast material injections tend to have severe diseases, a slight symptom from the gadolinium ion may be obscured," Dr. Kanda said.
There are two types of Gd-CM , linear and macrocyclic, with distinct chemical compositions. Since the patients in the study received only the linear type, additional research is needed to see if the macrocyclic type can prevent MRI hyperintensity, according to Dr. Kanda.
"High Signal Intensity in the Dentate Nucleus and Globus Pallidus on Unenhanced T1-weighted MR Images: Relationship with Increasing Cumulative Dose of a Gadolinium-based Contrast Material." Collaborating with Dr. Kanda were Kazunari Ishii, M.D., Ph.D., Hiroki Kawaguchi, M.D., Kazuhiro Kitajima, M.D., Ph.D., and Daisuke Takenaka, M.D., Ph.D.
Radiology is edited by Herbert Y. Kressel, M.D., Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass., and owned and published by the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. (http://radiology.rsna.org/)
RSNA is an association of more than 53,000 radiologists, radiation oncologists, medical physicists and related scientists promoting excellence in patient care and health care delivery through education, research and technologic innovation. The Society is based in Oak Brook, Ill. (RSNA.org)
GLUT5 fluorescent probe fingerprints cancer cells
20.04.2018 | Michigan Technological University
Scientists re-create brain neurons to study obesity and personalize treatment
20.04.2018 | Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
University of Connecticut researchers have created a biodegradable composite made of silk fibers that can be used to repair broken load-bearing bones without the complications sometimes presented by other materials.
Repairing major load-bearing bones such as those in the leg can be a long and uncomfortable process.
Study published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces is the outcome of an international effort that included teams from Dresden and Berlin in Germany, and the US.
Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) together with colleagues from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Virginia...
Novel highly efficient and brilliant gamma-ray source: Based on model calculations, physicists of the Max PIanck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg propose a novel method for an efficient high-brilliance gamma-ray source. A giant collimated gamma-ray pulse is generated from the interaction of a dense ultra-relativistic electron beam with a thin solid conductor. Energetic gamma-rays are copiously produced as the electron beam splits into filaments while propagating across the conductor. The resulting gamma-ray energy and flux enable novel experiments in nuclear and fundamental physics.
The typical wavelength of light interacting with an object of the microcosm scales with the size of this object. For atoms, this ranges from visible light to...
Stable joint cartilage can be produced from adult stem cells originating from bone marrow. This is made possible by inducing specific molecular processes occurring during embryonic cartilage formation, as researchers from the University and University Hospital of Basel report in the scientific journal PNAS.
Certain mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from the bone marrow of adults are considered extremely promising for skeletal tissue regeneration. These adult stem...
In the fight against cancer, scientists are developing new drugs to hit tumor cells at so far unused weak points. Such a “sore spot” is the protein complex...
13.04.2018 | Event News
12.04.2018 | Event News
09.04.2018 | Event News
20.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
20.04.2018 | Interdisciplinary Research
20.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy