Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Common Treatments Can Lead to Antibiotic Resistance

19.09.2011
Overexposure to antibiotics has long been a concern in the medical community – most specifically the development of antibiotic resistant infections as a result of repeated use.

According to a study released this week in the Archives of Ophthalmology, ophthalmologic antibiotics promote antimicrobial resistance too, prompting a call from Vanderbilt Eye Institute physicians to be more judicial in the administration of certain classes of antibiotics.

“The use of topical antibiotics is promoting antimicrobial resistance, prompting an emergence of resistant strains,” said Stephen Kim, M.D., assistant professor of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences. “This finding is very important for all practicing physicians to be aware of and understand. This information is broadly applicable to everyone.

“This is the first perspective study looking at this, and we were able to convincingly show cause and effect. There needs to be more rational thought when using topical antibiotics.”

Intravitreal injections are the fastest growing procedure in ophthalmology.

In 2008 there were more than 1 million injections performed in the United States, and this number is rising exponentially.

As intraocular injection rates soar, the number of post-injection eye infections (endophthalmitis) will also undoubtedly increase.

Consequently, there has been a dramatic increase in the routine use of topical antibiotics after intravitreal injections in order to reduce endophthalmitis, which is the most devastating complication of intravitreal injections and can result in severe and permanent vision loss.

Aware of this increasing trend of antibiotic use, Kim and colleagues at VEI studied 24 patients undergoing intravitreal injection treatments for macular degeneration. As part of the “Antibiotic Resistance of Conjunctiva and Nasopharynx Evaluation” (ARCaNE) study, patients were randomly assigned to one of four ophthalmic antibiotics to be used after each injection in the treated eye only. The patient’s other eye was not exposed to antibiotics and served as a control.

Patients were followed for one year. Prior to the first injection, all patients underwent baseline conjunctival cultures of both eyes.

During the study period, repeated cultures were taken in both eyes post injection, as well as in the nasopharynx on the same side of the treated eye.

Kim wanted to determine if there were changes in patterns of antibiotic susceptibility of the conjunctival and nasopharyngeal flora after repeated exposure to antibiotics.

“Usually when someone puts in an eye drop, 40 percent of that drop goes into the nasopharnyx,” explained Kim. “The nasopharnyx is host to many different specious and strains of bacteria, some of which can directly cause life-threatening infections such as pneumonia and sepsis.

“Alternating resistance patterns of bacteria in the nasopharnyx may result in more treatment resistant infections.”

According to Kim, topical ophthalmic antibiotics may select for resistant strains in the eye and nasopharnyx and promote the emergence of superbugs with resistance to multiple antibiotics.

“This may have deleterious consequence on our ability to treat future infections,” Kim said.

Preliminary findings from the study were reported in the December 2010 issue of Ophthalmology, which showed substantial baseline resistance patterns.

Jessica Pasley | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.vanderbilt.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht New vaccine production could improve flu shot accuracy
25.07.2017 | Duke University

nachricht Chances to treat childhood dementia
24.07.2017 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Carbon Nanotubes Turn Electrical Current into Light-emitting Quasi-particles

Strong light-matter coupling in these semiconducting tubes may hold the key to electrically pumped lasers

Light-matter quasi-particles can be generated electrically in semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Material scientists and physicists from Heidelberg University...

Im Focus: Flexible proximity sensor creates smart surfaces

Fraunhofer IPA has developed a proximity sensor made from silicone and carbon nanotubes (CNT) which detects objects and determines their position. The materials and printing process used mean that the sensor is extremely flexible, economical and can be used for large surfaces. Industry and research partners can use and further develop this innovation straight away.

At first glance, the proximity sensor appears to be nothing special: a thin, elastic layer of silicone onto which black square surfaces are printed, but these...

Im Focus: 3-D scanning with water

3-D shape acquisition using water displacement as the shape sensor for the reconstruction of complex objects

A global team of computer scientists and engineers have developed an innovative technique that more completely reconstructs challenging 3D objects. An ancient...

Im Focus: Manipulating Electron Spins Without Loss of Information

Physicists have developed a new technique that uses electrical voltages to control the electron spin on a chip. The newly-developed method provides protection from spin decay, meaning that the contained information can be maintained and transmitted over comparatively large distances, as has been demonstrated by a team from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute. The results have been published in Physical Review X.

For several years, researchers have been trying to use the spin of an electron to store and transmit information. The spin of each electron is always coupled...

Im Focus: The proton precisely weighted

What is the mass of a proton? Scientists from Germany and Japan successfully did an important step towards the most exact knowledge of this fundamental constant. By means of precision measurements on a single proton, they could improve the precision by a factor of three and also correct the existing value.

To determine the mass of a single proton still more accurate – a group of physicists led by Klaus Blaum and Sven Sturm of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Closing the Sustainability Circle: Protection of Food with Biobased Materials

21.07.2017 | Event News

»We are bringing Additive Manufacturing to SMEs«

19.07.2017 | Event News

The technology with a feel for feelings

12.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA mission surfs through waves in space to understand space weather

25.07.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Strength of tectonic plates may explain shape of the Tibetan Plateau, study finds

25.07.2017 | Earth Sciences

The dense vessel network regulates formation of thrombocytes in the bone marrow

25.07.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>