In the Western world, bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and the eighth most common in women, with many patients experiencing recurrence after treatment.
A new study published in BJU International indicates that inheriting certain DNA sequences can affect a patient's prognosis. The findings may help physicians identify sub-groups of bladder cancer patients who should receive intensive treatment and monitoring.
Nearly half of patients diagnosed with bladder cancer experience tumor recurrences, but it is difficult to predict which patients are at risk. Angeline Andrew, PhD, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Norris Cotton Cancer Center in Lebanon, New Hampshire and her colleagues analyzed the genes of 563 patients to identify genetic variants that modify time to bladder cancer recurrence and patient survival.
The investigators isolated DNA from immune cells circulating in the blood, and they examined genes involved in major biological processes linked to cancer: cell death, proliferation, DNA repair, hormone regulation, immune surveillance, and cellular metabolism.
After diagnosis, patients were followed over time to ascertain recurrence and survival status. Patients were followed for a median of 5.4 years, and half of patients experienced at least one recurrence.
The team found that patients with variants in the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene were likely to experience bladder cancer recurrence shortly after treatment. This gene encodes an enzyme involved in alcohol metabolism.
Time to recurrence was also shorter for patients who had a variant in the vascular cellular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1) gene and were treated with immunotherapy. VCAM1 encodes a glycoprotein involved in the development of lymphoid tissues. Patients who had non-invasive tumors and a variant in the DNA repair gene XRCC4 tended to live longer than patients who did not have the variant.
The researchers noted that the novel associations between genetic variants and bladder cancer recurrence uncovered in this study merit future investigation. "The genetic markers that we found could potentially be useful for individually tailoring surveillance and treatment of bladder cancer patients," said Dr. Andrew.
Evelyn Martinez | EurekAlert!
Nanotubes are beacons in cancer-imaging technique
23.05.2016 | Rice University
More light on cancer
20.05.2016 | Lomonosov Moscow State University
Permanent magnets are very important for technologies of the future like electromobility and renewable energy, and rare earth elements (REE) are necessary for their manufacture. The Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM in Freiburg, Germany, has now succeeded in identifying promising approaches and materials for new permanent magnets through use of an in-house simulation process based on high-throughput screening (HTS). The team was able to improve magnetic properties this way and at the same time replaced REE with elements that are less expensive and readily available. The results were published in the online technical journal “Scientific Reports”.
The starting point for IWM researchers Wolfgang Körner, Georg Krugel, and Christian Elsässer was a neodymium-iron-nitrogen compound based on a type of...
In the Beyond EUV project, the Fraunhofer Institutes for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen and for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering IOF in Jena are developing key technologies for the manufacture of a new generation of microchips using EUV radiation at a wavelength of 6.7 nm. The resulting structures are barely thicker than single atoms, and they make it possible to produce extremely integrated circuits for such items as wearables or mind-controlled prosthetic limbs.
In 1965 Gordon Moore formulated the law that came to be named after him, which states that the complexity of integrated circuits doubles every one to two...
Characterization of high-quality material reveals important details relevant to next generation nanoelectronic devices
Quantum mechanics is the field of physics governing the behavior of things on atomic scales, where things work very differently from our everyday world.
When current comes in discrete packages: Viennese scientists unravel the quantum properties of the carbon material graphene
In 2010 the Nobel Prize in physics was awarded for the discovery of the exceptional material graphene, which consists of a single layer of carbon atoms...
The trend-forward world of display technology relies on innovative materials and novel approaches to steadily advance the visual experience, for example through higher pixel densities, better contrast, larger formats or user-friendler design. Fraunhofer ISC’s newly developed materials for optics and electronics now broaden the application potential of next generation displays. Learn about lower cost-effective wet-chemical printing procedures and the new materials at the Fraunhofer ISC booth # 1021 in North Hall D during the SID International Symposium on Information Display held from 22 to 27 May 2016 at San Francisco’s Moscone Center.
24.05.2016 | Event News
20.05.2016 | Event News
19.05.2016 | Event News
25.05.2016 | Trade Fair News
25.05.2016 | Life Sciences
25.05.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering