Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

'Breath test' shows promise for diagnosing fungal pneumonia

23.10.2014

Many different microbes can cause pneumonia, and treatment may be delayed or off target if doctors cannot tell which bug is the culprit. A novel approach—analyzing a patient's breath for key chemical compounds made by the infecting microbe—may help detect invasive aspergillosis, a fungal infection that is a leading cause of mortality in patients with compromised immune systems, according to a proof-of-concept study now online in Clinical Infectious Diseases.

Currently difficult to diagnose, this type of fungal pneumonia often requires a lung biopsy for definitive identification. For debilitated patients with weakened immune systems, including organ or bone marrow transplant recipients and patients on chemotherapy, such an invasive procedure may be challenging. A non-invasive method that can also identify the type of fungus causing pneumonia could lead to earlier and more targeted treatment in these cases.

Sophia Koo, MD, of Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, and a team of researchers wondered if they could find a unique "chemical signature" in the breath of patients being evaluated for fungal pneumonia. In the lab, they identified several compounds, or metabolites, normally produced by Aspergillus fumigatus and other fungi that can cause pneumonia.

The researchers then analyzed breath samples from 64 patients with suspected cases of invasive aspergillosis and assessed whether it was possible to distinguish patients with this fungal pneumonia from patients who did not have this illness. Based on the identification of these fungal compounds in the breath samples, they identified patients with the fungal infection with high accuracy—94 percent sensitivity and 93 percent specificity. (In other words, the method was able to detect 94 percent of patients who actually had or likely had the disease, and misidentified as infected 7 percent of patients who were not actually infected.)

There were no adverse events related to the breath collection procedure, the authors reported. It was well-tolerated, including by patients who had difficulty breathing or required supplemental oxygen.

"Identification of the underlying microbial etiology remains elusive in most patients with pneumonia, even with invasive diagnostic measures," Dr. Koo said. "Our findings provide proof-of-concept that we can harness detection of species-specific metabolites to identify the precise microbial cause of pneumonia, which may guide appropriate treatment of these infections."

More research will be needed to validate the findings and refine the approach before it can be considered for clinical use, the authors noted. If supported by future research, the method also may have applications in other kinds of pneumonia. "We can likely also use this volatile metabolite profiling approach to identify other, more common causes of pneumonia," Dr. Koo said.

Fast Facts:

  • Invasive aspergillosis is a cause of fungal pneumonia that is difficult to diagnose, and it is a leading cause of mortality in immune-compromised patients.
  • Researchers were able to detect key compounds, or metabolites, produced by Aspergillus fungi in the breath of patients with fungal pneumonia.
  • Using this approach, researchers correctly distinguished patients with invasive aspergillosis from those who did not have the illness.

Clinical Infectious Diseases is a leading journal in the field of infectious disease with a broad international readership. The journal publishes articles on a variety of subjects of interest to practitioners and researchers. Topics range from clinical descriptions of infections, public health, microbiology, and immunology to the prevention of infection, the evaluation of current and novel treatments, and the promotion of optimal practices for diagnosis and treatment. The journal publishes original research, editorial commentaries, review articles, and practice guidelines and is among the most highly cited journals in the field of infectious diseases. Clinical Infectious Diseases is an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Based in Arlington, Va., IDSA is a professional society representing nearly 10,000 physicians and scientists who specialize in infectious diseases. For more information, visit http://www.idsociety.org. Follow IDSA on Facebook and Twitter.

Jerica Pitts | Eurek Alert!

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Researchers release the brakes on the immune system
18.10.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

nachricht Norovirus evades immune system by hiding out in rare gut cells
12.10.2017 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Osaka university researchers make the slipperiest surfaces adhesive

18.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

Space radiation won't stop NASA's human exploration

18.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Los Alamos researchers and supercomputers help interpret the latest LIGO findings

18.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>