Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Breakthrough by Temple researchers could lead to new treatment for heart attack

06.11.2013
The stop and start of blood flow to the heart during and after a heart attack causes severe damage to heart cells, reducing their capacity to function and potentially causing their death.

But a recent study led by researchers at Temple University School of Medicine suggests that it is possible to limit the extent of that damage using a drug. In experiments in mice that recapitulated a human clinical scenario, they discovered that inhibition of a heart protein called TNNI3K reduced damage from heart attack and protected the heart from further injury.

The findings have significant potential for translation into heart attack patients in a clinical setting. "Many times, what is done in a lab setting can't be done in patients," explained Ronald Vagnozzi, PhD, lead author on the new study, which appeared October 16 in Science Translational Medicine. "But we were interested in a real-world scenario."

Working with senior investigators Thomas L. Force, MD, Professor and Clinical Director at Temple University School of Medicine's (TUSM) Center for Translational Medicine, and Muniswamy Madesh, PhD, Assistant Professor in Temple's Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Center, and Center for Translational Medicine, Vagnozzi created a real-world clinical scenario in mice by mimicking blockage of an artery to induce heart attack and then administering a TNNI3K inhibitor. When cardiac function was subsequently improved in treated mice versus untreated controls, Vagnozzi and colleagues realized that a TNNI3K inhibitor could have important clinical benefits for human patients.

"TNNI3K is found only in the heart, which makes it interesting biologically and therapeutically," Vagnozzi said. "Although its function was not well understood, TNNI3K lent itself to being a potential therapeutic target for heart attack."

The researchers found that TNNI3K expression is elevated in patients who are suffering from heart failure, which can develop in the years following heart attack. To explore the significance of that elevation, they engineered mice to overexpress TNNI3K. They also created a second set of engineered mice, in which the protein was deleted. They then measured the animals' response to heart attack.

When overexpressed, Vagnozzi and colleagues found that TNNI3K promoted the injury of heart tissue from ischemia (blockage of blood flow) and reperfusion (restoration of blood flow) during and after a heart attack. TNNI3K overexpression in heart cells encouraged the production of superoxide, a reactive molecule from mitochondria, and activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), an enzyme that responds to stress signals in cells. The combined result of those activities was impaired mitochondrial function and heart cell death, which worsened ischemia/reperfusion injury. The opposite occurred in mice in which TNNI3K had been deleted—superoxide production and p38 activation were reduced, and injury to the heart was limited. Reductions in heart dysfunction and fibrosis (hardening of heart tissue) were also observed.

The team next collaborated with the pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) to identify compounds that were capable of blocking TNNI3K activity. Treatment of wild-type (nonengineered) mice with the compounds following heart attack produced effects that were similar to those observed in mice with TNNI3K deletion.

The new findings open the way to a large-animal study and the development of a TNNI3K inhibitor that can be used in humans. According to Force, the team is planning to move ahead with a large-animal study, which will determine whether the drugs are effective in animals other than mice and allow for the development of pharmacological and safety profiles of the compounds. "Because TNNI3K is only expressed in the heart, drugs targeting it should be reasonably safe," Force noted.

A major aim of Temple's Center for Translational Medicine is facilitating the delivery of new medicines to patients in the clinic, which could happen for TNNI3K inhibitors, if they are proven safe and effective in the next round of animal studies. According to Vagnozzi, who is now at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, the continued collaboratory effort between Temple and GSK will be a key component in moving the drugs into the clinic.

Vagnozzi and colleagues' paper was selected for F1000Prime, in which articles in biology and medical research are chosen and their importance rated by leading scientists and clinicians.

Other researchers contributing to the work include Gregory J. Gatto Jr., Lara S. Kallander, Victoria L. T. Ballard, Brian G. Lawhorn, Patrick Stoy, Joanne Philp, and John J. Lepore with the Heart Failure Discovery Performance Unit, Metabolic Pathways and Cardiovascular Therapeutic Area Unit, GlaxoSmithKline; Nicholas E. Hoffman, Karthik Mallilankaraman, and Erhe Gao at Temple's Center for Translational Medicine; Alan P. Graves with Platform Technology and Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline; and Yoshiro Naito from the Cardiovascular Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine in Japan.

The research was jointly funded by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute grants HL-061688, HL-091799, HL-106380, and HL-086699; an American Heart Association predoctoral fellowship; a Shared Instrumentation Program grant, 1S10RR027327; and the Scarperi family.

About Temple Health

Temple Health refers to the health, education and research activities carried out by the affiliates of Temple University Health System and by Temple University School of Medicine.

Temple University Health System (TUHS) is a $1.4 billion academic health system dedicated to providing access to quality patient care and supporting excellence in medical education and research. The Health System consists of Temple University Hospital (TUH), ranked among the "Best Hospitals" in the region by U.S. News & World Report; TUH-Episcopal Campus; TUH-Northeastern Campus; Fox Chase Cancer Center, an NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center; Jeanes Hospital, a community-based hospital offering medical, surgical and emergency services; Temple Transport Team, a ground and air-ambulance company; and Temple Physicians, Inc., a network of community-based specialty and primary-care physician practices. TUHS is affiliated with Temple University School of Medicine.

Temple University School of Medicine (TUSM), established in 1901, is one of the nation's leading medical schools. Each year, the School of Medicine educates approximately 840 medical students and 140 graduate students. Based on its level of funding from the National Institutes of Health, Temple University School of Medicine is the second-highest ranked medical school in Philadelphia and the third-highest in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. According to U.S. News & World Report, TUSM is among the top 10 most applied-to medical schools in the nation.

Jeremy Walter | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.temple.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht New malaria analysis method reveals disease severity in minutes
14.08.2017 | University of British Columbia

nachricht New type of blood cells work as indicators of autoimmunity
14.08.2017 | Instituto de Medicina Molecular

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New gene catalog of ocean microbiome reveals surprises

18.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Astrophysicists explain the mysterious behavior of cosmic rays

18.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

AI implications: Engineer's model lays groundwork for machine-learning device

18.08.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>