Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Body mass index and thrombogenic factors in newly menopausal women

30.08.2010
Although having a high body mass index (BMI) is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, researchers are only beginning to understand how BMI affects the physiological processes involved in the development of the disease.

Now, a study of a subset of women in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS), suggests that as BMI increases, so do platelet reactivity and thrombogenic microvesicles and activated protein C in the blood—all of which contribute to the formation of atherothrombosis and associated cardiovascular events. Moreover, as BMI increases, so do traditional established cardiovascular risk factors such as blood pressure, blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein.

Muthuvel Jayachandran, Assistant Professor of Physiology in the Mayo Clinic's Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering in Rochester, Minn., is the lead author of the study which is entitled, "Body Mass Index and Thrombogenic Factors in Newly Menopausal Women." He will present his team's findings at the 2010 American Physiological Society (APS) conference, Inflammation, Immunity, and Cardiovascular Disease, in Westminster Colorado, August 25-28. The full conference program can be found at http://the-aps.org/meetings/aps/inflammation/.

The Study

The Mayo researchers assessed cardiovascular risk factors in 118 women newly enrolled in the KEEPS, an ongoing multicenter study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of hormone replacement therapy in preventing cardiovascular disease in newly post-menopausal women aged 42 to 58. All women in the study had their final menstrual period less than 36 months prior to enrollment.

The Mayo subset study is a baseline study that determined cardiovascular risk parameters in women before they were randomized to receive hormone replacement therapy or placebo in the KEEPS. The researchers divided the 118 women into three groups according to BMI, with women in the low, moderate, and high groups having BMIs of less than 25, 25 to 29.9, and 30 to 34.9 respectively. The researchers assessed conventional cardiovascular risk factors such as blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, and liver function. They also analyzed the women's blood for platelet count, platelet reactivity, populations of activated cell membrane-derived thrombogenic microvesicles, and the amount of high-sensitive C-reactive protein and activated protein C. Finally, the women underwent computer tomography scans to test for the presence of calcium in their coronary arteries, an indicator of cardiovascular disease.

Results

Although most of the conventional risk factors were in the normal range in all of the women, the researchers found that these parameters were significantly greater in the moderate and high BMI groups compared to the low BMI group. For example, the mean blood pressure in the low BMI group was 115/72 mmHg, but 124/77 mmHg and 127/78 mmHg in the moderate and high BMI groups, respectively. Likewise, mean fasting blood glucose was 89 mg/dL in the low BMI group, but 92 mg/dL and 95 mg/dL in the moderate and high BMI groups. The exception was LDL, which was normal in the low BMI group with a mean of 122 mg/dL, but borderline high in the moderate and high BMI groups, each having a mean of 138 mg/dL and 140 mg/dL, respectively.

The researchers found elevated levels of platelets, thrombogenic microvesicles, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, and activated protein C in the moderate and high BMI groups. The mean platelet count in the low BMI group was 220 x103/µL, but 233 x103/µL and 255 x103/µL in the moderate and high BMI groups, respectively. Mean high-sensitive C-reactive protein in the low group was 1 pg/mL, but 2 pg/mL in the moderate BMI group and 4 pg/mL in the high BMI group. Mean activated protein C was 0.6 ng/mL in the low group, but 1 ng/mL in both the moderate and high BMI groups.

Finally, researchers assessed the risk of developing coronary artery calcium according to the number of women in each group who tested positive for it. Women in the low BMI group had an 8% risk, but women in the moderate and high BMI groups had a 17% and 14% risk, respectively

Implications

According Dr. Jayachandran, the upward trend in risk parameters among women in the moderate and high BMI groups should be taken seriously. "It indicates that there may be more risk for cardiovascular disease. Early menopause is a time to address life style changes that will reduce BMI and therefore, cardiovascular risk," he said.

He added that studies like KEEPS will be pivotal in clearing up the controversy surrounding menopausal hormone therapy and cardiovascular risk. Previous studies, such as the Women's Health Initiative and the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study, did not show any cardiovascular benefit, but the demographics in those studies were different.

"Those studies examined women with a mean age of 62 years. They were further away from their menopause before starting treatment, and the hormones may not reduce existing atherosclerosis," Dr. Jayachandran said. "We want to know how the hormone treatments might work early on to prevent the development of cardiovascular disease."

NOTE TO EDITORS: Dr. Jayachandran will present the team's research at the conference. To arrange an interview, please contact Donna Krupa at 301.634.7209 or dkrupa@the-aps.org.

Physiology is the study of how molecules, cells, tissues and organs function to create health or disease. The American Physiological Society (www.The-APS.org/press) has been an integral part of this discovery process since it was established in 1887.

Donna Krupa | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.the-aps.org

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures
17.11.2017 | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

nachricht High speed video recording precisely measures blood cell velocity
15.11.2017 | ITMO University

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

Im Focus: Wrinkles give heat a jolt in pillared graphene

Rice University researchers test 3-D carbon nanostructures' thermal transport abilities

Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA detects solar flare pulses at Sun and Earth

17.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures

17.11.2017 | Health and Medicine

The importance of biodiversity in forests could increase due to climate change

17.11.2017 | Studies and Analyses

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>