Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Body mass index and thrombogenic factors in newly menopausal women

30.08.2010
Although having a high body mass index (BMI) is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, researchers are only beginning to understand how BMI affects the physiological processes involved in the development of the disease.

Now, a study of a subset of women in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS), suggests that as BMI increases, so do platelet reactivity and thrombogenic microvesicles and activated protein C in the blood—all of which contribute to the formation of atherothrombosis and associated cardiovascular events. Moreover, as BMI increases, so do traditional established cardiovascular risk factors such as blood pressure, blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein.

Muthuvel Jayachandran, Assistant Professor of Physiology in the Mayo Clinic's Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering in Rochester, Minn., is the lead author of the study which is entitled, "Body Mass Index and Thrombogenic Factors in Newly Menopausal Women." He will present his team's findings at the 2010 American Physiological Society (APS) conference, Inflammation, Immunity, and Cardiovascular Disease, in Westminster Colorado, August 25-28. The full conference program can be found at http://the-aps.org/meetings/aps/inflammation/.

The Study

The Mayo researchers assessed cardiovascular risk factors in 118 women newly enrolled in the KEEPS, an ongoing multicenter study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of hormone replacement therapy in preventing cardiovascular disease in newly post-menopausal women aged 42 to 58. All women in the study had their final menstrual period less than 36 months prior to enrollment.

The Mayo subset study is a baseline study that determined cardiovascular risk parameters in women before they were randomized to receive hormone replacement therapy or placebo in the KEEPS. The researchers divided the 118 women into three groups according to BMI, with women in the low, moderate, and high groups having BMIs of less than 25, 25 to 29.9, and 30 to 34.9 respectively. The researchers assessed conventional cardiovascular risk factors such as blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, and liver function. They also analyzed the women's blood for platelet count, platelet reactivity, populations of activated cell membrane-derived thrombogenic microvesicles, and the amount of high-sensitive C-reactive protein and activated protein C. Finally, the women underwent computer tomography scans to test for the presence of calcium in their coronary arteries, an indicator of cardiovascular disease.

Results

Although most of the conventional risk factors were in the normal range in all of the women, the researchers found that these parameters were significantly greater in the moderate and high BMI groups compared to the low BMI group. For example, the mean blood pressure in the low BMI group was 115/72 mmHg, but 124/77 mmHg and 127/78 mmHg in the moderate and high BMI groups, respectively. Likewise, mean fasting blood glucose was 89 mg/dL in the low BMI group, but 92 mg/dL and 95 mg/dL in the moderate and high BMI groups. The exception was LDL, which was normal in the low BMI group with a mean of 122 mg/dL, but borderline high in the moderate and high BMI groups, each having a mean of 138 mg/dL and 140 mg/dL, respectively.

The researchers found elevated levels of platelets, thrombogenic microvesicles, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, and activated protein C in the moderate and high BMI groups. The mean platelet count in the low BMI group was 220 x103/µL, but 233 x103/µL and 255 x103/µL in the moderate and high BMI groups, respectively. Mean high-sensitive C-reactive protein in the low group was 1 pg/mL, but 2 pg/mL in the moderate BMI group and 4 pg/mL in the high BMI group. Mean activated protein C was 0.6 ng/mL in the low group, but 1 ng/mL in both the moderate and high BMI groups.

Finally, researchers assessed the risk of developing coronary artery calcium according to the number of women in each group who tested positive for it. Women in the low BMI group had an 8% risk, but women in the moderate and high BMI groups had a 17% and 14% risk, respectively

Implications

According Dr. Jayachandran, the upward trend in risk parameters among women in the moderate and high BMI groups should be taken seriously. "It indicates that there may be more risk for cardiovascular disease. Early menopause is a time to address life style changes that will reduce BMI and therefore, cardiovascular risk," he said.

He added that studies like KEEPS will be pivotal in clearing up the controversy surrounding menopausal hormone therapy and cardiovascular risk. Previous studies, such as the Women's Health Initiative and the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study, did not show any cardiovascular benefit, but the demographics in those studies were different.

"Those studies examined women with a mean age of 62 years. They were further away from their menopause before starting treatment, and the hormones may not reduce existing atherosclerosis," Dr. Jayachandran said. "We want to know how the hormone treatments might work early on to prevent the development of cardiovascular disease."

NOTE TO EDITORS: Dr. Jayachandran will present the team's research at the conference. To arrange an interview, please contact Donna Krupa at 301.634.7209 or dkrupa@the-aps.org.

Physiology is the study of how molecules, cells, tissues and organs function to create health or disease. The American Physiological Society (www.The-APS.org/press) has been an integral part of this discovery process since it was established in 1887.

Donna Krupa | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.the-aps.org

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht On track to heal leukaemia
18.01.2017 | Universitätsspital Bern

nachricht Penn vet research identifies new target for taming Ebola
12.01.2017 | University of Pennsylvania

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

Im Focus: How to inflate a hardened concrete shell with a weight of 80 t

At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).

Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

Nothing will happen without batteries making it happen!

05.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A big nano boost for solar cells

18.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Glass's off-kilter harmonies

18.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Toward a 'smart' patch that automatically delivers insulin when needed

18.01.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>