Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Body clock linked to diabetes and high blood sugar in new genome-wide study

08.12.2008
Diabetes and high levels of blood sugar may be linked to abnormalities in a person’s body clock and sleep patterns, according to a genome-wide association study published today in the journal Nature Genetics.

The research suggests that diabetes and higher than normal blood sugar levels could partly be tackled by treating sleep problems, say the researchers, from Imperial College London, the French National Research Institute CNRS, Lille University, McGill University in Canada, Steno Diabetes Centre in Denmark and other international institutions.

People with high blood sugar levels and diabetes have a greatly increased risk of developing a range of conditions, including cardiovascular diseases.

The new study shows that a mutation called rs1387153, near a gene called MTNR1B, is associated with having an increased average blood sugar level and around a 20 percent elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

MTNR1B forms part of a signalling pathway that controls the action of the hormone melatonin. This hormone regulates the body’s circadian rhythm - the internal clock that controls sleeping and eating patterns – by responding to daylight and darkness.

The discovery of the rs1387153 mutation provides evidence that high blood sugar and diabetes could be directly linked to an impaired circadian rhythm.

Professor Philippe Froguel, the corresponding author of the research from the Department of Genomic Medicine at Imperial College London, said: “There is already some research to suggest there are links between sleep problems and conditions such as obesity and depression, both of which are associated with diabetes. For example, we know that obese children tend to sleep badly and that people become more obese if they are not having enough sleep. Our new study demonstrates that abnormalities in the circadian rhythm may partly be causing diabetes and high blood sugar levels. We hope it will ultimately provide new options for treating people.”

In healthy people, blood sugar levels are kept under control by insulin, which the pancreas releases in varying amounts at different periods during a 24-hour natural cycle. The researchers suggest that when there is a genetic abnormality that affects melatonin levels and sleep patterns, this may also disturb the levels of insulin in the blood, preventing the body from maintaining control of blood sugar levels.

Insulin is normally secreted in peaks during the daytime, in order to allow blood sugar from meals to be processed properly, and at lower levels at night. In contrast, melatonin levels are low during the daytime and high at night.

The new study is part of a series of discoveries about the genetics of diabetes made by Professor Froguel and his colleagues. In May 2008 they identified a genetic mutation that can raise the amount of sugar in a person's blood to harmful levels and in February 2007 they identified the key genes associated with a risk of developing type-2 diabetes in the first study to map the genes of any disease in such detail.

The new study shows that identifying which people have high numbers of genetic mutations can reveal who is at most risk of developing high blood sugar levels. On average, the more genetic mutations associated with high blood sugar levels people had, the higher their blood sugar level.

For example, people with five genetic mutations had an average fasting blood sugar level of 5.4, whereas people with one mutation had an average level of 5.12.

Forty three percent of those carrying six or more mutations had levels of fasting blood glucose of 5.6 mmol/l or more. This level is defined as being ‘impaired’ by the American Diabetes Association, meaning that such people have a very high risk of developing diabetes in the future.

Professor Froguel added: “We have been developing quite a clear picture of the key genes involved with high blood sugar and diabetes and this allows us to better understand them and suggest new avenues for treatment. We are also nearing the stage when we can develop tests that can identify the people at most risk of developing high blood sugar and diabetes later in their lives, so we can intervene to improve their health before they reach that point.”

For the new study, the team analysed the genetic makeup of 2,151 non-diabetic French people (comprising 715 lean adults, 614 lean children, 247 obese adults and 575 obese children) and identified the rs1387153 mutation as being associated with high blood sugar levels. They confirmed their findings by looking at the genetic makeup of more than 16,000 non-diabetic people from different groups in France, Denmark and Finland.

The team then determined that the presence of the rs1387153 increased the risk of type 2 diabetes by comparing the genetic makeup of 6,332 French and Danish diabetic subjects with that of a group of 9,132 French and Danish people with normal blood sugar levels. The researchers found the same links between rs1387153 and a risk of diabetes in all the European populations they studied.

Laura Gallagher | alfa
Further information:
http://www.imperial.ac.uk

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Cholesterol-lowering drugs may fight infectious disease
22.08.2017 | Duke University

nachricht Once invincible superbug squashed by 'superteam' of antibiotics
22.08.2017 | University at Buffalo

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

What the world's tiniest 'monster truck' reveals

23.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Treating arthritis with algae

23.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Witnessing turbulent motion in the atmosphere of a distant star

23.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>