Scientists at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health, the South African National Institute for Communicable Diseases of National Health Laboratory Service (NICD-NHLS), the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Roche's 454 Life Sciences Corporation have discovered the new virus responsible for a highly fatal hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Zambia and South Africa in late 2008.
It is the first new hemorrhagic fever-associated arenavirus from Africa identified in nearly four decades. A detailed genetic analysis of this novel arenavirus, named Lujo virus, after the sites of the outbreak (Lusaka, Zambia, and Johannesburg, South Africa) is published online in PLoS Pathogens (http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000455).
The previously unknown arenavirus, which was identified using genetic extracts of blood and liver from the victims and through unbiased high-throughput sequencing, is distantly related to Lassa virus and Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Characterization of the novel virus confirms the utility of unbiased high-throughput sequencing for pathogen discovery and provides a blueprint for public health efforts to quickly curb unidentified emerging viral disease outbreaks in the future. It will also enable the development of specific tests to diagnose infection, determine the origin of the virus, and develop drugs and vaccines to treat and prevent disease.
In September and October 2008, five cases of undiagnosed hemorrhagic fever were recognized in South Africa after air transfer of a critically ill individual from Zambia. The disease was fatal in four of the five cases, including the originally infected individual, the paramedic who attended the patient during air transfer, the nurse who attended the patient in the intensive care unit, and a member of the hospital staff who cleaned the room after the death of the patient. The fifth case, a nurse who attended the paramedic, one day before barrier nursing procedures were implemented, received anti-viral treatment and recovered.
"Within 72 hours we identified the novel virus using high-throughput sequencing," stated Thomas Briese, PhD, associate professor of clinical Epidemiology and associate director of the Center for Infection and Immunity (CII) at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health.
"It is reassuring that we now have the tools needed to rapidly detect and respond to the challenges of unknown pathogens. A key challenge that remains is deployment of these technologies to the 'hot spots' where new killer viruses frequently emerge. We remain committed to this important public health effort as it represents a unique opportunity to prevent the next pandemic, be it a threat like HIV or SARS," said Ian Lipkin, MD, John Snow Professor of Epidemiology and professor of Neurology and Pathology at Columbia University and director of CII.
"The successful international collaboration during this highly fatal outbreak highlighted the importance of global cooperation in outbreak response to emerging and highly dangerous pathogens", stated Janusz Paweska, DVSc, Head of the Special Pathogens Unit of NICD-NHLS, extraordinary professor at the University of Pretoria, and deputy director of the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance. "This south-north collaboration created a powerful partnership of scientific excellence, resulting in rapid and comprehensive full genetic characterization of the new virus".
"454-sequencing enables researchers to quickly identify organisms present in a complex sample without any prior knowledge or bias," explained Michael Egholm, co-author and Chief Technology Officer and Vice President of Research and Development at 454 Life Sciences. "Our work with Lipkin and colleagues in developing a comprehensive approach to pathogen detection has borne fruit in resolving a number of recent disease outbreaks and confirms that it will be a critical tool for public health. We were honored in this most recent example to work with outstanding investigators at the U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases, South Africa, the CII, and the World Health Organization."
This work was supported by Google.org and the National Institutes of Health's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
About the Center for Infection and Immunity at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health
The Center is dedicated to global research and training programs focused on pathogen surveillance and discovery, and the understanding of how gene-environment-timing interactions contribute to health and disease. www.cii.columbia.edu
About the Mailman School of Public Health
The only accredited school of public health in New York City and among the first in the nation, Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health pursues an agenda of research, education, and service to address the critical and complex public health issues affecting millions of people locally and globally. The Mailman School is the recipient of some of the largest governmental and private grants in Columbia University's history. Its more than 1000 graduate students pursue master's and doctoral degrees, and the School's 300 multi-disciplinary faculty members work in more than 100 countries around the world, addressing such issues as infectious and chronic diseases, health promotion and disease prevention, environmental health, maternal and child health, health over the life course, health policy, and public health preparedness.
Speed data for the brain’s navigation system
06.12.2016 | Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen e.V. (DZNE)
Study suggests possible new target for treating and preventing Alzheimer's
02.12.2016 | Oregon Health & Science University
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
07.12.2016 | Earth Sciences
07.12.2016 | Earth Sciences
07.12.2016 | Materials Sciences