Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

First use of antibody and stem cell transplantation to successfully treat advanced leukemia

09.11.2009
For the first time, researchers at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center have reported the use of a radiolabeled antibody to deliver targeted doses of radiation, followed by a stem cell transplant, to successfully treat a group of leukemia and pre-leukemia patients for whom there previously had been no other curative treatment options.

All fifty-eight patients, with a median age of 63 and all with advanced acute myeloid leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome – a pre-leukemic condition – saw their blood cancers go into remission using a novel combination of low-intensity chemotherapy, targeted radiation delivery by an antibody and a stem-cell transplant.

Forty percent of the patients were alive a year after treatment and approximately 35 percent had survived three years, about the same rates as patients who received similar treatment but whose disease was already in remission and who had much more favorable risk for relapse when therapy began.

Results of the research appear online in the journal Blood. The principal investigator and corresponding author of the paper is John Pagel, M.D., Ph.D, a transplant oncologist and assistant member of the Hutchinson Center's Clinical Research Division.

The purpose of the study was to find the maximum dose of radiation that patients could tolerate with acceptable toxic side effects, not to assess how effective the novel treatment was, according to Pagel and colleagues. However, "the results appear to be very encouraging and warrant us to study it further for patients who really have no significant other curative options," Pagel said.

Older (over age 50) patients with active, advanced leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome pose the most difficult treatment challenges because standard transplant therapy rarely works, according to Pagel. Both standard and low-dose therapies (a process sometimes known as a "mini transplant" and pioneered at the Hutchinson Center) used to kill leukemia cells in the bloodstream in preparation for a transplant usually require that patients be in remission.

The patients in this study, who came from all over the world to participate in the Phase 1 clinical trial, were in large part those with active relapsed disease that in many cases had failed to respond to standard therapies. Eighty-six percent of the 58 patients had active disease and only 10 percent were in remission when therapy was begun. Their cancers had failed previous treatment attempts. "These were people who had extremely advanced high-risk disease, they were typically older – most of them were in their 60s and some were in their 70s – and had few or no other options for a potential cure. In fact most, if not all, would not been offered a stem cell transplant here or elsewhere. It is fair to say that these patients would likely have died without a transplant being performed if they had not been given the opportunity to participate in this study."

To find the optimal dose of radiation, researchers began at 12 Gy (Gray, a unit of measurement of absorbed radiation dose) and escalated the dosages in increments of 2 Gy up to a Gy of 26. At that dose, some toxicity to the heart and lungs was found so they concluded 24 Gy to be the maximum effective dosage. The 21 patients who received the maximum radiation dose have survived the longest, researchers reported.

The key to success in this study was use of a radiolabeled antibody that has therapeutic iodine 131 attached and is designed to target leukemic bloods cells that carry a marker on the surface of the cell known as CD45. Its use in delivering targeted amounts of radiation was developed several years ago at the Hutchinson Center. Delivered intravenously, the radiation looks for the CD45 antigen receptor on the surface of blood cells. This approach results in a two- to four-fold increase in the amount of radiation that reaches cancerous cells as compared to standard external beam radiation, which also radiates normal surrounding organs and tissue. The more radiation that can be applied, the more cancer cells will be killed in preparation for donor stem cells to take over the diseased immune system and kill off the remaining cancer cells.

Pagel said further research is needed to test more patients at the highest radiation dose both at the Hutchinson Center and at other transplant centers around the country.

Joining Pagel in the study were colleagues from the Hutchinson Center, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the departments of Medicine, Pediatrics and Nuclear Medicine at the University of Washington School of Medicine.

Grants from the National Institutes of Health, the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society of America, the Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation, the Edson Foundation and the Frederick Kullman Memorial Fund supported this research.

At Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, our interdisciplinary teams of world-renowned scientists and humanitarians work together to prevent, diagnose and treat cancer, HIV/AIDS and other diseases. Our researchers, including three Nobel laureates, bring a relentless pursuit and passion for health, knowledge and hope to their work and to the world. For more information, please visit fhcrc.org.

Dean Forbes | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.fhcrc.org

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Using fragment-based approaches to discover new antibiotics
21.06.2018 | SLAS (Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening)

nachricht Scientists learn more about how gene linked to autism affects brain
19.06.2018 | Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Temperature-controlled fiber-optic light source with liquid core

In a recent publication in the renowned journal Optica, scientists of Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (Leibniz IPHT) in Jena showed that they can accurately control the optical properties of liquid-core fiber lasers and therefore their spectral band width by temperature and pressure tuning.

Already last year, the researchers provided experimental proof of a new dynamic of hybrid solitons– temporally and spectrally stationary light waves resulting...

Im Focus: Overdosing on Calcium

Nano crystals impact stem cell fate during bone formation

Scientists from the University of Freiburg and the University of Basel identified a master regulator for bone regeneration. Prasad Shastri, Professor of...

Im Focus: AchemAsia 2019 will take place in Shanghai

Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.

Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...

Im Focus: First real-time test of Li-Fi utilization for the industrial Internet of Things

The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.

Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.

Im Focus: Sharp images with flexible fibers

An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.

Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Munich conference on asteroid detection, tracking and defense

13.06.2018 | Event News

2nd International Baltic Earth Conference in Denmark: “The Baltic Sea region in Transition”

08.06.2018 | Event News

ISEKI_Food 2018: Conference with Holistic View of Food Production

05.06.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Better model of water under extreme conditions could aid understanding of Earth's mantle

21.06.2018 | Earth Sciences

What are the effects of coral reef marine protected areas?

21.06.2018 | Life Sciences

The Janus head of the South Asian monsoon

21.06.2018 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>