Now, researchers have discovered that GERD is associated with global alteration of the microbiome in the esophagus.
The findings, reported in the August 1, 2009 issue of Gastroenterology, may provide for the foundation for further study of the condition as a microecological disease with new treatment possibilities.
The findings of an altered microbiome may have profound implications for treating diseases of the esophagus, among the most common disorders affecting Western populations. In fact, about 40% of adults experience heartburn symptoms at least once a month. Chronic inflammation associated with GERD can lead to the development of Barrett’s esophagus, precancerous condition. The incidence of cancer of the esophagus has increased six-fold since the 1970s--the fastest increasing cancer in the Western world.
“These findings have opened a new approach to understanding the pathogenesis of reflux-related disorders,” states Zhiheng Pei, MD, PhD, assistant professor of pathology and medicine at NYU Langone Medical Center and lead author of the study. “At this time, we don’t yet know whether the changes in bacterial populations are triggering GERD or are simply a response to it. But if changes in the bacterial population do indeed cause reflux, it may be possible to design new therapies with antibiotics, probiotic bacteria or prebiotics.”
Researchers collected and sequenced bacteria from the esophagus of 34 patients, both healthy and those suffering from GERD (specifically esophagitis and Barrett’s esophagus). They found a high concentration of Streptococcus in the esophagus of healthy patients. In contrast, an altered type of microbiome dominated by Gram-negative bacteria was contained in greater proportions in those patients with esophagitis and Barrett’s esophagus.
The human microbiome is comprised of all the microorganisms that reside in or on the human body, as well as all their DNA, or genomes. Microbial cells in the human body are estimated to outnumber human cells by a factor of ten to one. These communities, or microbiomes, however remain largely unstudied, leaving almost entirely unknown their influence upon human development, physiology, immunity and nutrition.
In order to analyze the makeup of these microbial organisms, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) launched the Human Microbiome Project in 2007 and awarded $115 million in research grants over five years to examine the relationship between the microbiome in a specific niche in the body to a particular disease. This study was sponsored by the NIH to examine how changes in microbioal populations correlate with changes in human health.About NYU Langone Medical Center
Dorie Klissas | Newswise Science News
Penn study identifies new malaria parasites in wild bonobos
21.11.2017 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures
17.11.2017 | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.
Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...
Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...
15.11.2017 | Event News
15.11.2017 | Event News
30.10.2017 | Event News
21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
21.11.2017 | Life Sciences