Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

A ‘Pacman Strategy’ to Boost the Immune System to Fight Cancer

13.04.2011
A molecule that lies dormant until it encounters a cancer cell, then suddenly activates and rouses the body’s immune system to fight cancer cells directly, marks the latest step in scientists’ efforts to tap the body’s own resources to fight the disease.

The developers of the technology at the University of Rochester Medical Center dub it the “Pacman strategy” because it hinges upon molecular machines produced in abundance by tumors to chew through and gobble up particular chains of molecules.

The key feature of the work is a new type of fusion molecule with three parts: a potent immune cell activator; a second molecule to keep that molecule quiescent until it’s needed; and a link between the two that gives scientists control over how the two interact.

A protease is designed to destroy the link between IL-2 and its inhibitor, freeing IL-2 near tumors.The overall fusion molecule acts like a tiny anti-cancer grenade: The portion designed to arouse the immune system to attack cancer is inactive until it’s freed, an act that occurs when the link between it and its inhibitory counterpart is cleaved by specialized tumor proteins that chew up such molecules.

The work, led by graduate student John Puskas and Professor John Frelinger, Ph.D., was published online recently in the journal Immunology. Puskas, who is defending his doctoral thesis today, is first author of the paper.

In its experiments the team used Interleukin-2 or IL-2, a cytokine or chemical messenger that amplifies the effects of the immune system. IL-2 has been central to the burgeoning field known as cancer immunotherapy; it turns on T cells and natural killer cells that recognize and kill cancer cells. It’s approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of melanoma and kidney cancer, but it can have serious side effects, limiting its use in patients dramatically. That’s largely because it can harm healthy tissue when it’s active throughout the body.

“One reason we chose IL-2 is that it’s approved and used to treat patients today. If we’re able to reduce the toxicity associated with it, perhaps it could be used more broadly,” said Frelinger, professor of Microbiology and Immunology.

In experiments using the technology in the lab, the activity of IL-2 in the fusion protein was weak but became 10 to 50 times more biologically active after cleavage. Importantly, in experiments in mice with cancer, tumor growth was inhibited in mice where IL-2 was turned on using the technology compared to mice in which it was not. In many of the treated mice, tumor cells could not be detected after one week.

A key to the technology is the molecular link between IL-2 and its inhibitor. Puskas and Frelinger built that link out of a chain of amino acids – building blocks of proteins. Such chains are broken or cleaved constantly in the body by enzymes known as proteases. In these experiments, when the link is broken, IL-2 breaks free from its inhibitor and is suddenly available to activate other immune cells.

Puskas and Frelinger created links that are cleaved by molecules found much more commonly in cancer cells than other cells. For instance, in one set of experiments, they created a link that is broken only by prostate specific antigen, a protease that is found in prostate cancer cells. They also created links that are cleaved by proteases known as MMP2 and MMP9 – both examples of matrix metalloproteinases commonly overactive in many types of tumors.

The approach is designed to turn on the immune system powerfully right in the neighborhood of cancer cells, to destroy those cells, but to avoid a system-wide immune response that could cause severe side effects.

Frelinger points out that the new work is quite different from other experimental anti-cancer efforts that have involved fusion proteins. In other fusion protein approaches, the molecules are active throughout the body. In the new work, the cytokine is designed to be active only near tumor cells, an approach designed to reduce unwanted side effects.

“The beauty of this approach is that you can change any part of the molecule you want,” said Frelinger, who also has an appointment in the University’s James P. Wilmot Cancer Center. “If you want to target a specific type of cancer, you change the protease sequence to tailor it to particular types of tumors. If you want to change the part of the immune system activated, you change the cytokine.

“Our hope is that an approach like this might someday be coupled with other types of therapy, so that the body could initiate and maintain a vigorous immune response to kill tumors.”

Other authors besides Puskas and Frelinger include graduate students Denise Skrombolas and Abigail Sedlacek, and faculty members Edith Lord, Ph.D., and Mark Sullivan, Ph.D. The work was supported by the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases as well as by Steven and Alison Krausz and F.C. Blodgett.

“John was very brave for taking on this project,” said Frelinger. “It really was something that hadn’t been attempted before. He did an outstanding job.”

For Media Inquiries:
Tom Rickey
(585) 275-7954
Email Tom Rickey

Tom Rickey | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.rochester.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Penn study identifies new malaria parasites in wild bonobos
21.11.2017 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

nachricht NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures
17.11.2017 | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Nanoparticles help with malaria diagnosis – new rapid test in development

The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.

Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Previous evidence of water on mars now identified as grainflows

21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

NASA's James Webb Space Telescope completes final cryogenic testing

21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

New catalyst controls activation of a carbon-hydrogen bond

21.11.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>