"We have made several discoveries about the mechanism behind contact allergy, one of which is that allergenic substances react with keratin 5 and 14 in the skin. The skin cells form what are known as "blebs" when exposed to allergenic substances, and this can be used to test whether a substance is allergenic", says Sofia Andersson from the Department of Chemistry at the University of Gothenburg.
Contact allergy affects around 20% of the population in the western world. Metals such as nickel, and substances in perfume and preservatives are among the most common allergenic substances. They are often components of products that are in contact with the skin, such as jewellery, skin lotions and make up. Contact allergy cannot be cured, and an affected person must avoid the allergenic substance, in order to avoid troublesome eczema. This can be a problem if the substance is present in many different products. It is for this reason important to test cosmetic products in order to prevent the development of contact allergy.
The EU has now forbidden the testing of cosmetics and their ingredients on animals. It is, however, not a simple matter to fully replace animal tests. Until now, animal-free tests have only been able to determine whether a substance is allergenic or not – such tests have not been able to determine the extent to which a substance causes allergy. Thus, much work remains to be done in developing alternative methods.
"Cultured skin cells are exposed to substances for 24 hours in our test, and then photographed. The number of cells with blebs is then counted. The greater the number of blebbing cells, the more powerful is the allergenic potential of the substance. Thus, our new test has the potential to give a graded reply: it can quite simply determine whether an allergenic substance is extremely, strongly, moderately or weakly allergenic", says Sofia Andersson.
The results can then be used to determine safe concentrations of substances in products that are used in contact with the skin. Since the experiments have given very promising results, the scientists are now working together with GU Holding in developing the test and the analysis method.
The thesis Contact Sensitizers Induce Keratinocytes to Release Epitopes - Tools for In Vitro Tests and Implications for Autoimmunity was successfully defended at a disputation held at the University of Gothenburg.
Sofia Andersson | EurekAlert!
NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures
17.11.2017 | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
High speed video recording precisely measures blood cell velocity
15.11.2017 | ITMO University
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...
Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...
Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...
15.11.2017 | Event News
15.11.2017 | Event News
30.10.2017 | Event News
17.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
17.11.2017 | Health and Medicine
17.11.2017 | Studies and Analyses