Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

3 subtypes of gastric cancer suggest different treatment approaches

28.08.2013
Stomach cancer, one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide, actually falls into three broad subtypes that respond differently to currently available therapies, according to researchers at Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore.

The finding could greatly improve patient care with the development of a genetic test to classify tumors and match them to the therapies that offer the best outcomes.


Gastric cancer is the second-most lethal malignancy in the world, behind lung cancer.

Credit: Duke Medicine

"One of the features that makes gastric cancer so lethal is that it arises from many genetic alterations, creating differences in how the tumors respond to therapies," said Steve Rozen, Ph.D., director of the Centre for Computational Biology at Duke-NUS. Rozen is senior author of the study published in the September issue of the journal Gastroenterology. "What our study has shown is that there are actually three distinct molecular classifications that appear to be biologically and therapeutically meaningful."

Worldwide, only lung cancer is more lethal than stomach cancer. Rates in all countries have been dropping for decades, and are much lower in the United States than in Asia, but the malignancy still afflicts more than 21,000 people in the U.S. a year, according to the National Cancer Institute.

Despite differences in the way their tumors respond to treatments, patients often receive a "one-size-fits-all" treatment approach, resulting in a five-year survival rate of about 27 percent in the United States.

"There has been an urgent need for improved classification of gastric cancer that provides insight into the biology of the tumors that might help predict treatment response," said co-senior author Patrick Tan, M.D., PhD., professor in the Cancer and Stem Cell Biology Program at Duke-NUS.

Using a technology called microarray-based gene expression profiling, Rozen and colleagues analyzed 248 gastric tumors, then further grouped them according to the genes that were expressed in the tumors.

The gene expression analysis broadly sorts the tumors into three subtypes: proliferative, metabolic and mesenchymal. These subtypes also differ in their genomic and epigenomic properties.

Tumors of the proliferative subtype have high levels of genomic instability and a mutation in the TP53 tumor suppressor gene that occurs in many types of cancers. Cancer cells of the metabolic subtype are more sensitive to the chemotherapy agent 5-FU. Cancer cells of the mesenchymal subtype have some features of cancer stem cells, and are particularly sensitive to a class of therapies called PI3K−AKT−mTOR inhibitors.

"In terms of clinical treatment, there are two promising findings from our research," Rozen said. "One is that 5-FU has been particularly effective against metabolic- subtype tumors, and the second is that drugs targeting the PI3K−AKT−mTOR pathway may be particularly effective against mesenchymal-subtype cancers."

"If confirmed in future studies, the classification of gastric cancers reported here could guide development of therapies tailored to the molecular subtypes," said lead author Zhengdeng Lei, PhD.

In addition to Rozen, Tan and Lei, study authors include Iain Beehuat Tan, Kakoli Das, Niantao Deng, Hermioni Zouridis, Sharon Pattison, Clarinda Chua, Zhu Feng, Yeoh Khay Guan, Chia Huey Ooi, Tatiana Ivanova, Shenli Zhang, Minghui Lee, Jeanie Wu, Anna Ngo, Sravanthy Manesh, Elisabeth Tan, Bin Tean Teh, Jimmy Bok Yan So, Liang Kee Goh, Alex Boussiouta, Tony Kiat Hon Lim and Horst Flotow.

The study was supported by the Duke-NUS Signature Research Programs, with funding from the Singapore Agency for Science, Technology, and Research and the Singapore Ministry of Health; the Singapore National Medical Research Council; the Singapore National Research Foundation and Ministry of Education; and the Singapore Biomedical Research Council.

Sarah Avery | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.duke.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Team discovers how bacteria exploit a chink in the body's armor
20.01.2017 | University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

nachricht Rabies viruses reveal wiring in transparent brains
19.01.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Traffic jam in empty space

New success for Konstanz physicists in studying the quantum vacuum

An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Sustainable Water use in Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

19.01.2017 | Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Helmholtz International Fellow Award for Sarah Amalia Teichmann

20.01.2017 | Awards Funding

An innovative high-performance material: biofibers made from green lacewing silk

20.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Ion treatments for cardiac arrhythmia — Non-invasive alternative to catheter-based surgery

20.01.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>