Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Unlocking the Brain's Secrets Using Sound

23.01.2014
Potential applications include treatments for epilepsy and blindness

The brain is a reclusive organ. Neurons – the cells that make up the brain, nerves, and spinal cord – communicate with each other using electrical pulses known as action potentials, but their interactions are complicated and hard to understand.

Just getting access to the brain itself is difficult: inserting devices through the skull into the brain requires surgery. But work by Technion Professors Eitan Kimmel and Shy Shoham, and Ph.D. student Misha Plaksin, may advance our ability to unlock the brain's secrets noninvasively using sound, and perhaps create new treatments for illnesses. The findings were published today (January 21, 2014) in Physical Review X (http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevX.4.011004).

Scientists have known for a while that ultrasonic waves can affect cells in many ways. For instance, physicians use ultrasound to stimulate the production of blood vessels and bone; it's also used in heat therapy. When applied to neurons, ultrasonic waves can change how the neurons generate and transmit electrical signals. "Ultrasound is known to do all kinds of things in cells," says Prof. Kimmel, "but how it works in many cases isn't clear, particularly when it comes to neural stimulation."

A new model may help clarify much of this behavior. This new way of understanding the interaction of sound waves and cells relies on the cellular membrane. This microscopic structure is the skin that surrounds a cell, keeping the organelles – like the nucleus and the DNA it contains – in, and the rest of the world out. The molecules that form the membrane are arranged in such a way that there are two layers, with a space between them. According to Kimmel's model, when the ultrasonic waves encounter a cell, the two layers of the cellular membrane begin to vibrate (much like how a person's vocal cords vibrate when air passes through the larynx). Cell membranes also act as capacitors, storing electrical charge. As the layers vibrate, the membrane's electrical charge also moves, creating an alternating current that leads to a charge accumulation. The longer the vibrations continue, the more charge builds up in the membrane. Eventually, enough charge builds up that an action potential is created.

The Technion team was able to use the model to predict experimental results that were then verified using brain stimulation experiments performed in mice by a team at Stanford University. According to Prof. Shoham, this is "the first predictive theory of ultrasound stimulation." All of these results mean that scientists might be on the verge of finally understanding how ultrasound affects nerve cells.

And this new understanding could lead to important new medical advances. For example, scientists could use ultrasonic waves to probe the brain's internal structure, a non-invasive technique that would be safer than implanting electrodes and complement the information produced by MRI scans. Physicians could also conceivably use ultrasound to treat epileptic seizures. And Shoham has begun studying the ways in which ultrasonic waves could stimulate cells in the retina, possibly creating images and letting people see without light. “There is great potential for additional applications,” says Kimmel.

The Technion team's findings also illustrate how important it is to get a theoretical understanding of things in nature. After all, says Shoham, "there's only so much you can do with effects you don't understand."

Professors Eitan Kimmel and Shy Shoham are members of the Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, and the Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology.

The Technion-Israel Institute of Technology is a major source of the innovation and brainpower that drives the Israeli economy, and a key to Israel’s renown as the world’s “Start-Up Nation.” Its three Nobel Prize winners exemplify academic excellence. Technion people, ideas and inventions make immeasurable contributions to the world including life-saving medicine, sustainable energy, computer science, water conservation and nanotechnology. The Joan and Irwin Jacobs Technion-Cornell Innovation Institute is a vital component of Cornell NYC Tech, and a model for graduate applied science education that is expected to transform New York City’s economy.

American Technion Society (ATS) donors provide critical support for the Technion—more than $1.9 billion since its inception in 1940. Based in New York City, the ATS and its network of chapters across the U.S. provide funds for scholarships, fellowships, faculty recruitment and chairs, research, buildings, laboratories, classrooms and dormitories, and more.

Kevin Hattori | Newswise
Further information:
http://www.ats.org

More articles from Medical Engineering:

nachricht First transcatheter implant for diastolic heart failure successful
16.11.2017 | The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center

nachricht Theranostic nanoparticles for tracking and monitoring disease state
13.11.2017 | SLAS (Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening)

All articles from Medical Engineering >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

Im Focus: Wrinkles give heat a jolt in pillared graphene

Rice University researchers test 3-D carbon nanostructures' thermal transport abilities

Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA detects solar flare pulses at Sun and Earth

17.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures

17.11.2017 | Health and Medicine

The importance of biodiversity in forests could increase due to climate change

17.11.2017 | Studies and Analyses

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>