Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Unlocking the Brain's Secrets Using Sound

23.01.2014
Potential applications include treatments for epilepsy and blindness

The brain is a reclusive organ. Neurons – the cells that make up the brain, nerves, and spinal cord – communicate with each other using electrical pulses known as action potentials, but their interactions are complicated and hard to understand.

Just getting access to the brain itself is difficult: inserting devices through the skull into the brain requires surgery. But work by Technion Professors Eitan Kimmel and Shy Shoham, and Ph.D. student Misha Plaksin, may advance our ability to unlock the brain's secrets noninvasively using sound, and perhaps create new treatments for illnesses. The findings were published today (January 21, 2014) in Physical Review X (http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevX.4.011004).

Scientists have known for a while that ultrasonic waves can affect cells in many ways. For instance, physicians use ultrasound to stimulate the production of blood vessels and bone; it's also used in heat therapy. When applied to neurons, ultrasonic waves can change how the neurons generate and transmit electrical signals. "Ultrasound is known to do all kinds of things in cells," says Prof. Kimmel, "but how it works in many cases isn't clear, particularly when it comes to neural stimulation."

A new model may help clarify much of this behavior. This new way of understanding the interaction of sound waves and cells relies on the cellular membrane. This microscopic structure is the skin that surrounds a cell, keeping the organelles – like the nucleus and the DNA it contains – in, and the rest of the world out. The molecules that form the membrane are arranged in such a way that there are two layers, with a space between them. According to Kimmel's model, when the ultrasonic waves encounter a cell, the two layers of the cellular membrane begin to vibrate (much like how a person's vocal cords vibrate when air passes through the larynx). Cell membranes also act as capacitors, storing electrical charge. As the layers vibrate, the membrane's electrical charge also moves, creating an alternating current that leads to a charge accumulation. The longer the vibrations continue, the more charge builds up in the membrane. Eventually, enough charge builds up that an action potential is created.

The Technion team was able to use the model to predict experimental results that were then verified using brain stimulation experiments performed in mice by a team at Stanford University. According to Prof. Shoham, this is "the first predictive theory of ultrasound stimulation." All of these results mean that scientists might be on the verge of finally understanding how ultrasound affects nerve cells.

And this new understanding could lead to important new medical advances. For example, scientists could use ultrasonic waves to probe the brain's internal structure, a non-invasive technique that would be safer than implanting electrodes and complement the information produced by MRI scans. Physicians could also conceivably use ultrasound to treat epileptic seizures. And Shoham has begun studying the ways in which ultrasonic waves could stimulate cells in the retina, possibly creating images and letting people see without light. “There is great potential for additional applications,” says Kimmel.

The Technion team's findings also illustrate how important it is to get a theoretical understanding of things in nature. After all, says Shoham, "there's only so much you can do with effects you don't understand."

Professors Eitan Kimmel and Shy Shoham are members of the Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, and the Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology.

The Technion-Israel Institute of Technology is a major source of the innovation and brainpower that drives the Israeli economy, and a key to Israel’s renown as the world’s “Start-Up Nation.” Its three Nobel Prize winners exemplify academic excellence. Technion people, ideas and inventions make immeasurable contributions to the world including life-saving medicine, sustainable energy, computer science, water conservation and nanotechnology. The Joan and Irwin Jacobs Technion-Cornell Innovation Institute is a vital component of Cornell NYC Tech, and a model for graduate applied science education that is expected to transform New York City’s economy.

American Technion Society (ATS) donors provide critical support for the Technion—more than $1.9 billion since its inception in 1940. Based in New York City, the ATS and its network of chapters across the U.S. provide funds for scholarships, fellowships, faculty recruitment and chairs, research, buildings, laboratories, classrooms and dormitories, and more.

Kevin Hattori | Newswise
Further information:
http://www.ats.org

More articles from Medical Engineering:

nachricht New imaging technique able to watch molecular dynamics of neurodegenerative diseases
14.07.2017 | The Optical Society

nachricht Quick test finds signs of sepsis in a single drop of blood
03.07.2017 | University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

All articles from Medical Engineering >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Carbon Nanotubes Turn Electrical Current into Light-emitting Quasi-particles

Strong light-matter coupling in these semiconducting tubes may hold the key to electrically pumped lasers

Light-matter quasi-particles can be generated electrically in semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Material scientists and physicists from Heidelberg University...

Im Focus: Flexible proximity sensor creates smart surfaces

Fraunhofer IPA has developed a proximity sensor made from silicone and carbon nanotubes (CNT) which detects objects and determines their position. The materials and printing process used mean that the sensor is extremely flexible, economical and can be used for large surfaces. Industry and research partners can use and further develop this innovation straight away.

At first glance, the proximity sensor appears to be nothing special: a thin, elastic layer of silicone onto which black square surfaces are printed, but these...

Im Focus: 3-D scanning with water

3-D shape acquisition using water displacement as the shape sensor for the reconstruction of complex objects

A global team of computer scientists and engineers have developed an innovative technique that more completely reconstructs challenging 3D objects. An ancient...

Im Focus: Manipulating Electron Spins Without Loss of Information

Physicists have developed a new technique that uses electrical voltages to control the electron spin on a chip. The newly-developed method provides protection from spin decay, meaning that the contained information can be maintained and transmitted over comparatively large distances, as has been demonstrated by a team from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute. The results have been published in Physical Review X.

For several years, researchers have been trying to use the spin of an electron to store and transmit information. The spin of each electron is always coupled...

Im Focus: The proton precisely weighted

What is the mass of a proton? Scientists from Germany and Japan successfully did an important step towards the most exact knowledge of this fundamental constant. By means of precision measurements on a single proton, they could improve the precision by a factor of three and also correct the existing value.

To determine the mass of a single proton still more accurate – a group of physicists led by Klaus Blaum and Sven Sturm of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

Closing the Sustainability Circle: Protection of Food with Biobased Materials

21.07.2017 | Event News

»We are bringing Additive Manufacturing to SMEs«

19.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

CCNY physicists master unexplored electron property

26.07.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Molecular microscopy illuminates molecular motor motion

26.07.2017 | Life Sciences

Large-Mouthed Fish Was Top Predator After Mass Extinction

26.07.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>