Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New MRI technique may predict progress of dementias

11.04.2012
Computer modeling supports theory that many dementias spread like prion diseases

A new technique for analyzing brain images offers the possibility of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to predict the rate of progression and physical path of many degenerative brain diseases, report scientists at the San Francisco VA Medical Center and the University of California, San Francisco.

The technique, developed by SFVAMC scientists in collaboration with a team led by Bruce Miller, MD, clinical director of the UCSF Memory and Aging Center, also supports mounting evidence that dementias spread through the brain along specific neuronal pathways in the same manner as prion diseases (see related UCSF story).

The scientists employed new computer modeling techniques to realistically predict the physical progression of Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) using images of 14 healthy brains.

The models were based on whole-brain tractography, an MRI technique that maps the neural pathways, or "communication wires," that connect different areas of the brain. The spread of disease along those pathways, as predicted by the models, closely matched actual MRI images of brain degeneration in 18 Alzheimer's patients and 18 FTD patients. Their study was published in the March 22 edition of Neuron.

"The results need to be replicated, but they suggest that, by using this approach, we can predict the location and course of future brain atrophy in Alzheimer's, FTD and other degenerative brain diseases, based on just one MRI taken at the outset of the disease," said senior author Michael Weiner, MD, director of the SFVAMC Center for Imaging of Neurodegenerative Diseases. "This would be extremely useful in planning treatment, and in helping patients and families know what to expect as dementia progresses."

Weiner, who is also a UCSF professor of radiology, medicine, psychiatry and neurology, said that the results were "consistent with an emerging concept that brain damage occurs in these neurodegenerative diseases in a diffusive, prion-like propagation."

A prion is an infectious, misfolded form of a normal protein. These proteins leave destructive amyloid deposits in the brains in which they develop, causing degeneration and eventual death. They are responsible for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or "mad cow" disease, in cattle. In 1997, neurologist Stanley B. Prusiner of UCSF was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for discovering and characterizing the prion. His finding overturned a tenet of modern biology, showing that a protein, rather than just the molecules DNA and RNA, could cause infection.

"The idea of a prion-like mode of progression in dementias, which many scientists are beginning to support, is that the misfolded protein in one neuron will infect a neighboring brain cell, causing proteins in that cell to misfold in turn, and that the spread of these misfolded proteins flows along certain networks in the brain," explained Weiner. "For instance, in Alzheimer's, there is a spread of amyloid protein along the memory network. This paper reinforces the idea that the damage occurs progressively along that network and others."

Weiner emphasized that Alzheimer's and frontotemporal dementia "are not infectious diseases" like Creutzfeldt-Jakob. But he said "it may be that a little seed of the disease begins in one neuron in the brain and spreads in a similar way – so it's infectious within the brain, from one neuron to the next."

The lead author of the paper is Ashish Raj, PhD, of SFVAMC and UCSF at the time of the study and currently at Weill Medical College, Cornell University, NY; the co-author is Amy Kuceyeski of Weill Cornell.

The study was supported by funds from the National Institutes of Health, some of which were administered by the Northern California Institute for Research and Education. The UCSF California Alzheimer's Disease Research Center also supported and contributed to the study.

NCIRE - The Veterans Health Research Institute - is the largest research institute associated with a VA medical center. Its mission is to improve the health and well-being of veterans and the general public by supporting a world-class biomedical research program conducted by the UCSF faculty at SFVAMC.

SFVAMC has the largest medical research program in the national VA system, with more than 200 research scientists, all of whom are faculty members at UCSF.

UCSF is a leading university dedicated to promoting health worldwide through advanced biomedical research, graduate-level education in the life sciences and health professions, and excellence in patient care.

Steve Tokar | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ncire.org

More articles from Medical Engineering:

nachricht Why we need erasable MRI scans
26.04.2018 | California Institute of Technology

nachricht Electrode shape improves neurostimulation for small targets
25.04.2018 | Purdue University

All articles from Medical Engineering >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Why we need erasable MRI scans

New technology could allow an MRI contrast agent to 'blink off,' helping doctors diagnose disease

Magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, is a widely used medical tool for taking pictures of the insides of our body. One way to make MRI scans easier to read is...

Im Focus: BAM@Hannover Messe: innovative 3D printing method for space flight

At the Hannover Messe 2018, the Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und-prüfung (BAM) will show how, in the future, astronauts could produce their own tools or spare parts in zero gravity using 3D printing. This will reduce, weight and transport costs for space missions. Visitors can experience the innovative additive manufacturing process live at the fair.

Powder-based additive manufacturing in zero gravity is the name of the project in which a component is produced by applying metallic powder layers and then...

Im Focus: Molecules Brilliantly Illuminated

Physicists at the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics, which is jointly run by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, have developed a high-power laser system that generates ultrashort pulses of light covering a large share of the mid-infrared spectrum. The researchers envisage a wide range of applications for the technology – in the early diagnosis of cancer, for instance.

Molecules are the building blocks of life. Like all other organisms, we are made of them. They control our biorhythm, and they can also reflect our state of...

Im Focus: Spider silk key to new bone-fixing composite

University of Connecticut researchers have created a biodegradable composite made of silk fibers that can be used to repair broken load-bearing bones without the complications sometimes presented by other materials.

Repairing major load-bearing bones such as those in the leg can be a long and uncomfortable process.

Im Focus: Writing and deleting magnets with lasers

Study published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces is the outcome of an international effort that included teams from Dresden and Berlin in Germany, and the US.

Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) together with colleagues from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Virginia...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

IWOLIA: A conference bringing together German Industrie 4.0 and French Industrie du Futur

09.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

World's smallest optical implantable biodevice

26.04.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Molecular evolution: How the building blocks of life may form in space

26.04.2018 | Life Sciences

First Li-Fi-product with technology from Fraunhofer HHI launched in Japan

26.04.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>