Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Driver Misjudgment and Landscape Variations Cause Collisions at Stop Sign Intersections

01.10.2009
Stop signs are supposed to be traffic safety tools, but how effective are they? According to one Ryerson University researcher, intersections with stop signs can be some of the deadliest places on the road.

In 2005 the Ministry of Transportation reported 62,000 crossing and turning collisions at stop-sign controlled and other types of intersections throughout Ontario, resulting in nearly 150 deaths and approximately 16,000 injuries. That’s nearly five times the number of fatalities as rear-end collisions in the same year.

Professor Said Easa of Ryerson’s Department of Civil Engineering says that speed and driver misjudgment are to blame. “When you want to cross a road or make an angular turn,” he explains, “you must judge the speed of the oncoming vehicle, estimate how fast it will reach the intersection, and compare that to your own ability to safely accelerate and manoeuvre. It’s very difficult to do, especially for older people. Their perception-reaction time is slower than younger drivers.”

Dr. Easa specializes in highway design and road safety. His most recent papers examine how minor (two-lane) roads and major (two- and four-lane) roads intersect. He writes that in addition to driver misjudgment, curves, hills and valleys on major roads can negatively affect the sight line of a driver on a minor road.

Using collision data from more than 5,000-kilometres of rural two-lane highways in Washington State, Dr. Easa and his research associate Qing Chong You created five statistical models to predict the frequency of vehicle collisions.

Among their findings, the researchers discovered that the biggest predictors of collisions along curved roads were the degree of the curve; the width, length and grade of the road; the average annual daily traffic; and the number of intersecting roads per kilometre. Those results, Dr. Easa hopes, will eventually prove useful in evaluating road safety improvements and optimizing the cost-effectiveness of highway design.

In his second study, Dr. Easa created another mathematical model. This one, however, aims to improve safety at existing and new intersections that are obstructed by large curves on a major roadway. In particular, Dr. Easa was concerned with sight distance – that is, the time gap between when a driver on a minor road sees a vehicle that rounds a curve and comes into view on the major road and when this vehicle arrives at the intersection. Clearly, this time must be greater than the time required by the minor road vehicle to cross the road, or turn left or right.

To aid driver judgment, Professor Easa’s and one of his former PhD students, Dr. Essam Dabbour, collaborated to develop an in-vehicle collision prediction system for consumers that takes the guess-work out of intersections. The on-board system, which is still under development, would calculate whether or not it’s safe to proceed forward.

Dr. Easa and Qing Chong You’s research study, entitled Collision Prediction Models for Three-Dimensional Two-Lane Highways: Horizontal Curves, was published in the journal Transportation Research Record in September 2009. The research, which received support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), also earned the 2009 best paper award from the Operational Effects of Geometrics committee of the U.S. Transportation Board.

Dr. Easa’s second report, entitled Stop-Controlled Intersection Sight Distance: Minor Road on Tangent of Horizontal Curve, was published in the September issue of the Journal of Transportation Engineering. His collaborators were Ryerson Research Associate Muhammad Zain Ali and Civil Engineering Professor Mohammad Hamed of the Jordan University of Science and Technology.

Ryerson University is Canada's leader in innovative career-focused education, offering close to 100 PhD, master's, and undergraduate programs in the Faculty of Arts; the Faculty of Communication & Design; the Faculty of Community Services; the Faculty of Engineering, Architecture and Science; and the Ted Rogers School of Management. Ryerson University has graduate and undergraduate enrolment of 25,000 students. With more than 68,000 registrations annually, The G. Raymond Chang School of Continuing Education is Canada's leading provider of university-based adult education.

Heather Kearney | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.ryerson.ca

More articles from Transportation and Logistics:

nachricht Tool helps cities to plan electric bus routes, and calculate the benefits
09.01.2017 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

nachricht Realistic training for extreme flight conditions
28.12.2016 | Technical University of Munich (TUM)

All articles from Transportation and Logistics >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

New risk factors for anxiety disorders

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

MWC 2017: 5G Capital Berlin

24.02.2017 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>