In 2005 the Ministry of Transportation reported 62,000 crossing and turning collisions at stop-sign controlled and other types of intersections throughout Ontario, resulting in nearly 150 deaths and approximately 16,000 injuries. That’s nearly five times the number of fatalities as rear-end collisions in the same year.
Professor Said Easa of Ryerson’s Department of Civil Engineering says that speed and driver misjudgment are to blame. “When you want to cross a road or make an angular turn,” he explains, “you must judge the speed of the oncoming vehicle, estimate how fast it will reach the intersection, and compare that to your own ability to safely accelerate and manoeuvre. It’s very difficult to do, especially for older people. Their perception-reaction time is slower than younger drivers.”
Dr. Easa specializes in highway design and road safety. His most recent papers examine how minor (two-lane) roads and major (two- and four-lane) roads intersect. He writes that in addition to driver misjudgment, curves, hills and valleys on major roads can negatively affect the sight line of a driver on a minor road.
Using collision data from more than 5,000-kilometres of rural two-lane highways in Washington State, Dr. Easa and his research associate Qing Chong You created five statistical models to predict the frequency of vehicle collisions.
Among their findings, the researchers discovered that the biggest predictors of collisions along curved roads were the degree of the curve; the width, length and grade of the road; the average annual daily traffic; and the number of intersecting roads per kilometre. Those results, Dr. Easa hopes, will eventually prove useful in evaluating road safety improvements and optimizing the cost-effectiveness of highway design.
In his second study, Dr. Easa created another mathematical model. This one, however, aims to improve safety at existing and new intersections that are obstructed by large curves on a major roadway. In particular, Dr. Easa was concerned with sight distance – that is, the time gap between when a driver on a minor road sees a vehicle that rounds a curve and comes into view on the major road and when this vehicle arrives at the intersection. Clearly, this time must be greater than the time required by the minor road vehicle to cross the road, or turn left or right.
To aid driver judgment, Professor Easa’s and one of his former PhD students, Dr. Essam Dabbour, collaborated to develop an in-vehicle collision prediction system for consumers that takes the guess-work out of intersections. The on-board system, which is still under development, would calculate whether or not it’s safe to proceed forward.
Dr. Easa and Qing Chong You’s research study, entitled Collision Prediction Models for Three-Dimensional Two-Lane Highways: Horizontal Curves, was published in the journal Transportation Research Record in September 2009. The research, which received support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), also earned the 2009 best paper award from the Operational Effects of Geometrics committee of the U.S. Transportation Board.
Dr. Easa’s second report, entitled Stop-Controlled Intersection Sight Distance: Minor Road on Tangent of Horizontal Curve, was published in the September issue of the Journal of Transportation Engineering. His collaborators were Ryerson Research Associate Muhammad Zain Ali and Civil Engineering Professor Mohammad Hamed of the Jordan University of Science and Technology.
Ryerson University is Canada's leader in innovative career-focused education, offering close to 100 PhD, master's, and undergraduate programs in the Faculty of Arts; the Faculty of Communication & Design; the Faculty of Community Services; the Faculty of Engineering, Architecture and Science; and the Ted Rogers School of Management. Ryerson University has graduate and undergraduate enrolment of 25,000 students. With more than 68,000 registrations annually, The G. Raymond Chang School of Continuing Education is Canada's leading provider of university-based adult education.
Heather Kearney | Newswise Science News
Laser rescue system for serious accidents
29.11.2016 | Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V.
Bremen University students reach the final at robotics competition with parcel delivery robot
19.10.2016 | BIBA - Bremer Institut für Produktion und Logistik
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
06.12.2016 | Materials Sciences
06.12.2016 | Medical Engineering
06.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering