Road traffic injuries are a leading cause of death and disability worldwide and are projected to make an increasingly important contribution to public health burdens over the coming decades, especially in low- and middle-income settings.
While the UK has a comparatively good road injury record, with among the lowest rates in Europe, there were still 2,858 deaths and 26,066 serious injuries in the roads in England and Wales in 2006, and reducing this number remains a major aim of public policy. Over the last 15 years or so, in London, as in many areas of the UK, 20 mph zones have been established.
A team from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine have estimated the effect of introducing 20 mph traffic speed zones on road collisions, injuries and fatalities in London. They carried out an observational study based on analysis of geographically-coded police road casualty data, from 1986 to 2006. Overall, the introduction of 20mph zones was associated with a 41.9% reduction in road casualties, after allowing for underlying time-trends.
The percentage reduction was greatest in younger children, and was greater for people killed or seriously injured in collisions. Pedestrian injuries were reduced by a third with a greater reduction in children aged 0-15 years. The reduction was smaller in cycling casualties (17%) but again this was higher in children.
Chris Grundy, Lecturer on Geographical Information Systems at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and lead author of the study, comments: 'This study provides the most detailed evidence to date of the effect of 20 mph zones on road casualties and collisions in major metropolitan areas. 20 mph zones appear to reduce casualty numbers, especially serious injury and death, and suggest that the benefits are greatest among younger children 'In the context of the wider evidence about the health burdens associated with road injuries, this evidence supports introducing 20 mph zones in major British cities and also in similar metropolitan areas elsewhere. Indeed, even within London, there is a case for extending the currently limited provision of such zones to other roads with high numbers of casualties.'
Sally Hall | EurekAlert!
Tool helps cities to plan electric bus routes, and calculate the benefits
09.01.2017 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
Realistic training for extreme flight conditions
28.12.2016 | Technical University of Munich (TUM)
Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...
The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.
The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...
Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...
Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".
Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...
13.02.2017 | Event News
10.02.2017 | Event News
09.02.2017 | Event News
20.02.2017 | Materials Sciences
20.02.2017 | Health and Medicine
20.02.2017 | Health and Medicine