Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Worms Reveal Secrets of Wound Healing Response

21.11.2011
The lowly and simple roundworm may be the ideal laboratory model to learn more about the complex processes involved in repairing wounds and could eventually allow scientists to improve the body’s response to healing skin wounds, a serious problem in diabetics and the elderly.

That’s the conclusion of biologists at the University of California, San Diego who have discovered genes in the laboratory roundworm C. elegans that signal the presence of surface wounds and trigger another series of chemical reactions that allow the worms to quickly close cuts in their surfaces that would turn fatal if left unrepaired.

The scientists report in the December 6 issue of the journal Current Biology that these two findings and a third discovery they made in the worms, involving genes that inhibit wound healing, could allow scientists one day to design ways to improve the healing of cuts and sores by possibly blocking the action of these inhibitory genes or finding ways to enhance the chemical signaling and wound healing process. An advance copy of their paper is being published online this week by the journal.

“What we’ve shown in this paper is that a biochemical pathway is activated by wounding in the worms that involves calcium,” said Andrew Chisholm, a professor of biology at UC San Diego, who headed the research effort. “It’s been known for some time that one of the things that happens when you damage a cell is that calcium levels within the cell increase.”

But in a series of experiments with C. elegans, Chisholm and postdoctoral fellow Suhong Xu found out much more. They took time-lapse movies of areas around the transparent worms where they punctured the skin with a needle or laser. Then they monitored the calcium with a fluorescent protein so they could see how the calcium molecules spread from the point of injury. They also developed genetic screens to pinpoint the specific calcium pathway or “channel” that is signaling the presence of the wound and stimulating the healing process.

“We think the channel is playing an important role in either sensing damage or responding to some other receptor that senses damage,” said Chisholm. “Is it sensing a change in the tension of the cell? Is it sensing some kind of change in electrical potential? We don’t know.”

While biomedical scientists have made great strides in understanding how the body responds to infections and chemically rebuilds the skin when the wound healing process is underway, very little is known about what happens within the cell or the body in the minutes or hours following injury. “That’s still a big, big question,” Chisholm said. “But we think we’ve made a start that will help us answer that question.”

He thinks the lowly roundworms may be the ideal animals to probe that question and others involving wound healing for a variety of reasons: they are small, transparent, have a delicate surface susceptible to injury and a rapid wound response mechanism that keeps their surface wounds from being fatal.

“They have a hydrostatic skeleton in which the skin and muscles are under pressure to allow the animal to stay semi-rigid, so when you jab a worm with a needle it will, in effect, explode,” he said. “But remarkably, they don’t die when you do that because they have evolved ways to very rapidly close wounds to survive in the wild. In their natural environment, their predators try to exploit the worm’s vulnerable exoskeleton. There are a whole group of fungi with tiny spikes that just sit around waiting for the worms to crawl over them so they can poke holes through their cuticle.”

“For us, they are easy to work with, because worms are small, easy to grow and they’re transparent, so when you put them on a slide, you can see the calcium clearly,” he said.

The transparent worms also allowed Chisholm and Xu to get their first glimpse of how the worms rapidly close their wounds. In a time lapse movie and in a series of photographs detailed in the paper, the researchers show how actin, a protein found in all cells that plays a role in muscle contraction, is recruited to and surrounds the wound, then closes the cut by tightening the actin like a purse string.

“We think that calcium is regulating this process,” said Chisholm, “because if you knock out calcium with a drug that chelates calcium, essentially locking it up, you don’t get the ring. If you have a genetic mutant worm with low levels of calcium, you don’t get the ring. But if you bathe this mutant in calcium, you can restore this ring.”

In addition, the researchers discovered in roundworms that a protein called DAPK-1 acts to inhibit the closure of wounds, raising the possibility that drugs that inhibit the action of this protein could improve the wound healing process in humans.

“Wound healing in humans is a much more complicated situation than this of course,” Chisholm said. “But the hope is that by learning more about the basic biology of wound responses, we can eventually learn how to heal wounds more quickly or, in the case of the elderly or those with diabetes, overcome their weakened responses to healing.”

The research study was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health.

Kim McDonald | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.ucsd.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht For a chimpanzee, one good turn deserves another
27.06.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften (MPIMIS)

nachricht New method to rapidly map the 'social networks' of proteins
27.06.2017 | Salk Institute

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Touch Displays WAY-AX and WAY-DX by WayCon

27.06.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Drones that drive

27.06.2017 | Information Technology

Ultra-compact phase modulators based on graphene plasmons

27.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>