Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

West Nile Virus Infection May Persist in Kidneys Years After Initial Infection

09.12.2009
A new study shows that people who have been infected with West Nile virus may have persistent virus in their kidneys for years after initial infection, potentially leading to kidney problems. The research, which appears in the January 1 issue of The Journal of Infectious Diseases, is now available online (http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/648731).

Spread by infected mosquitoes, West Nile virus was first detected in the United States in 1999. Since then, approximately 25,000 human cases have been reported, causing more than 1,000 deaths. Many more have become infected without showing symptoms. Previous animal studies raised the possibility that patients may still be infected with the virus several years after recovering from their initial illness.

Prior to this latest research, however, humans were thought to remain infected with West Nile virus only for the first few days of illness. The study, led by Kristy Murray, DVM, PhD at the University of Texas School of Public Health in Houston, demonstrates that not all individuals clear the virus from their system within the first few days—and that it can remain in the kidneys for years, potentially leading to kidney failure.

Dr. Murray and her colleagues followed more than 100 patients in Houston with severe initial West Nile virus infections for seven years. Individuals were evaluated and blood samples collected every six months. More than half continued to have infection-related symptoms years after their initial illness, although symptoms began to plateau around two years after infection. The deaths of five participants due to kidney failure led researchers to consider whether the kidney could be a preferred replication site for the virus.

To test this hypothesis, Dr. Murray and her team collected urine samples from 25 patients from their original cohort and tested them for presence of West Nile virus. In this group, five patients (20 percent) tested positive for the virus. Viral RNA could be detected in the urine for at least six years following infection. Four of the five patients who tested positive for virus also experienced chronic symptoms. Of these five, one patient developed kidney failure. These results show that West Nile virus is capable of long term persistence in patients, particularly when chronic symptoms are present.

In an accompanying editorial, Ernest Gould, PhD, of the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology in Oxford, England, points out that this study raises the additional concern that West Nile virus and other flaviviruses may be transmitted to mosquitoes by apparently healthy humans or animals. This possibility has the potential to start epidemics in new regions of the world.

According to Dr. Murray, patients who have been infected with West Nile virus should “have their kidneys monitored by their physician for any evidence of disease and be aware that persistent infection of the kidneys can happen.” Dr. Murray also reminds the public to take proper precautions to protect themselves from mosquito bites during transmission seasons, typically the summer and fall, to avoid infection.

More research is needed to “understand the underlying mechanisms related to the shedding of virus particles in urine, whether shedding of the virus is constant or intermittent, and whether or not this represents true infection resulting in kidney disease,” the investigators say. They continue to evaluate all study participants, particularly in regard to kidney function. In addition, they are focusing on developing treatment options for those who remain infected with the virus.

Fast Facts

Individuals who have had severe infections with West Nile virus may harbor the virus in their kidneys for many years.

This study suggests that individuals infected with West Nile virus should have their kidneys monitored for disease and be aware that disease persistence can occur.

Founded in 1904, The Journal of Infectious Diseases is the premier publication in the Western Hemisphere for original research on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases; on the microbes that cause them; and on disorders of host immune mechanisms. Articles in JID include research results from microbiology, immunology, epidemiology, and related disciplines. It is published under the auspices of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Based in Arlington, Va., IDSA is a professional society representing more than 9,000 physicians and scientists who specialize in infectious diseases.

John Heys | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.idsociety.org

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Multi-institutional collaboration uncovers how molecular machines assemble
02.12.2016 | Salk Institute

nachricht Fertilized egg cells trigger and monitor loss of sperm’s epigenetic memory
02.12.2016 | IMBA - Institut für Molekulare Biotechnologie der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften GmbH

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer ISE Develops Highly Compact, High Frequency DC/DC Converter for Aviation

The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

UTSA study describes new minimally invasive device to treat cancer and other illnesses

02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering

Plasma-zapping process could yield trans fat-free soybean oil product

02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

What do Netflix, Google and planetary systems have in common?

02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>