Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Watching the Developing Brain, Scientists Glean Clues on Neurological Disorder

15.11.2012
As the brain develops, each neuron must find its way to precisely the right spot to weave the intricate network of links the brain needs to function. Like the wiring in a computer, a few misplaced connections can throw off functioning for an entire segment of the brain.

A new study by researchers at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine reveals how some nerve cells, called interneurons, navigate during the development of the cerebral cortex. Mutations in a key gene behind this navigation system underlie a rare neurological disorder called Joubert syndrome; a condition linked with autism spectrum disorders and brain structure malformations.


Eva Anton Lab, UNC School of Medicine

The left panel shows normal neuronal cell organization (red and green). Organization is lost when Arl13b gene is deleted (right panel).

The study was published online on Nov. 12, 2012 by the journal Developmental Cell.

“We were trying to understand how neurons get to the right place at the right time during brain development,” said senior study author Eva Anton, PhD, a professor in the UNC Neuroscience Center and the Department of Cell Biology and Physiology at the UNC School of Medicine.

To do that, the UNC researchers and their collaborator, Dr. Tamara Caspary, at Emory University tracked brain development in mice with and without a gene called Arl13b. They found that the gene, when functioning normally, allows interneurons to use an appendage called the primary cilium as a sensor.

These appendages are found on many types of cells, but scientists did not previously know what they were doing on developing neurons.

“We found that primary cilia play an important role in guiding neurons to their appropriate places during development so that the neurons can wire up appropriately later on,” said Anton. “It’s like an antenna that allows the neuron to read the signals that are out there and navigate to the right target location.”

Neurons in mice without the Arl13b gene or expressing mutant Arl13b found in Joubert syndrome patients essentially had a broken antenna, causing the cells to get lost on the way to their destinations.

Variants of the Arl13b gene are known to cause Joubert syndrome, which is characterized by brain malformations, abnormal eye and tongue movements, low muscle tone and mental retardation. This is one of the first studies to uncover how mutations of this gene actually disrupt brain development.

“Ultimately, if you’re going to come up with therapeutic solutions, it’s important to understand the biology of the disease,” said Anton. “This contributes to our understanding of the biological processes that are disrupted in Joubert syndrome patients.”

Co-authors include Holden Higginbotham, Tae-Yeon Eom, Amelia Bachleda, Joshua Hirt, Vladimir Gukassyana and Corey Cusack from UNC, Laura E. Mariani and Tamara Caspary of Emory University, and Cary Lai of Indiana University, Bloomington.

Les Lang | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.med.unc.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht New type of photosynthesis discovered
17.06.2018 | Imperial College London

nachricht New ID pictures of conducting polymers discover a surprise ABBA fan
17.06.2018 | University of Warwick

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: AchemAsia 2019 will take place in Shanghai

Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.

Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...

Im Focus: First real-time test of Li-Fi utilization for the industrial Internet of Things

The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.

Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.

Im Focus: Sharp images with flexible fibers

An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.

Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...

Im Focus: Photoexcited graphene puzzle solved

A boost for graphene-based light detectors

Light detection and control lies at the heart of many modern device applications, such as smartphone cameras. Using graphene as a light-sensitive material for...

Im Focus: Water is not the same as water

Water molecules exist in two different forms with almost identical physical properties. For the first time, researchers have succeeded in separating the two forms to show that they can exhibit different chemical reactivities. These results were reported by researchers from the University of Basel and their colleagues in Hamburg in the scientific journal Nature Communications.

From a chemical perspective, water is a molecule in which a single oxygen atom is linked to two hydrogen atoms. It is less well known that water exists in two...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Munich conference on asteroid detection, tracking and defense

13.06.2018 | Event News

2nd International Baltic Earth Conference in Denmark: “The Baltic Sea region in Transition”

08.06.2018 | Event News

ISEKI_Food 2018: Conference with Holistic View of Food Production

05.06.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

A sprinkle of platinum nanoparticles onto graphene makes brain probes more sensitive

15.06.2018 | Materials Sciences

100 % Organic Farming in Bhutan – a Realistic Target?

15.06.2018 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation

Perovskite-silicon solar cell research collaboration hits 25.2% efficiency

15.06.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>