In cities, the presence of algae, lichens, and mosses is not considered desirable and they are often removed from roofs and walls. It is, however, totally unfair to consider these cryptogamic covers, as the flat growths are referred to in scientific terms, just a nuisance.
Lichen on a twig. The photo shows various lichen species that have colonised a twig. Lichens as the common orange lichen (Xanthoria parietina) are a symbiosis of a fungus and green or blue green algae (cyanobacteria). They belong to the cryptogamic covers that can fix carbon dioxide and nitrogen depending on the species. Picture: W. Elbert, MPI for Chemistry
Lichens, like the green-yellow map lichen depicted in this image, are pioneers of life: They grow on rocks, paving the way for other plants. Picture: Uli Pöschl, MPI for Chemistry
Dr. Susanne Benner | Max-Planck-Institut
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Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. The effect is due to the structure of the materials used. The researchers have now published their work in the journal Science.
Topological insulators are currently the hot topic in physics according to the newspaper Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Only a few weeks ago, their importance was...
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
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In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
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