How does single "RISC" accurately cleave and release target RNAs?
University of Tokyo and Kyoto University researchers have revealed the molecular mechanism of RNA interference (RNAi), the phenomenon by which the synthesis of a specific protein is inhibited, by real time observation of target RNA cleavage at the single-molecule level.
Shedding light on the single target cleavage reaction in RNAi. The target RNA cleavage reaction by the RNAi effector complex RISC was monitored in real time at the single-molecule level by using a special microscope. This illustration represents this process. © 2015 Hachiro Hongo and Hisashi Tadakuma.
The phenomenon of RNAi is expected to find applications in medical treatments. RNAi is mediated by RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which contains a small RNA and an Argonaute protein at its core and cleaves the target RNA.
However, there were no suitable tools to directly monitor the RNAi reaction and its molecular mechanism by which RISC cleaves the target RNA has remained unclear.
Now, a research group at the University of Tokyo (Professor Takuya Ueda, Professor Yukihide Tomari, Researcher Chunyan Yao and Research Associate Hiroshi M Sasaki,) and at Kyoto University (Researcher Hisashi Tadakuma), has developed a single-molecule imaging assay for observing target RNA cleavage by RISC in a test tube in real time for the first time, showing how RISC accurately cleaves and releases targets.
Specifically, their obsercations provide direct evidence for the model that the small RNA in the RISC consists of two parts, one of which quickly binds to the target RNA to be cleaved, while the other proofreads that the correct RNA has been found.
This groundbreaking result reveals RISC’s molecular mechanism of action and the illustration of this process was adopted as the cover design of this issue of the journal.
This achievement will also contribute to accelerating the research applications of RNAi such as to the development of RNA-based next-generation drugs, for example as gene therapy to suppress the production of a disease-causing protein.
Chunyan Yao, Hiroshi M Sasaki, Takuya Ueda, Yukihide Tomari and Hisashi Tadakuma, "Single-molecule analysis of the target cleavage reaction by Drosophila RNAi enzyme complex", Molecular Cell Online Edition: 2015/7/3 (Japan time), doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2015.05.015.
U Tokyo Research article
Euan McKay | ResearchSEA
Novel mechanisms of action discovered for the skin cancer medication Imiquimod
21.10.2016 | Technische Universität München
Second research flight into zero gravity
21.10.2016 | Universität Zürich
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...
In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.
A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...
By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.
"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...
COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.
In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...
'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.
Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...
14.10.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
12.10.2016 | Event News
21.10.2016 | Health and Medicine
21.10.2016 | Information Technology
21.10.2016 | Materials Sciences