Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

‘Vicious cycle’ shields, spreads cancer cells

17.09.2013
Rice U. researchers find mucus-regulating protein receptors out of control in uterine, pancreatic cancers

A “vicious cycle” produces mucus that protects uterine and pancreatic cancer cells and promotes their proliferation, according to researchers at Rice University. The researchers offer hope for a therapeutic solution.


The presence of rosiglitazone may mitigate the mucus-producing cycle that protects uterine and pancreatic cancer cells and promotes metastasis, say researchers at Rice University. Normal cells produce MUC1, a glycoprotein that forms mucus, necessary to protect healthy cells. But in cancer cells, aberrant cell signaling allows EGFRs and MUC1 stimulate each other, allowing mucus to cover and protect the entire cell. “P” indicates phosphorylation, a step in the activation of EGFR required for increasing mucus levels. (Graphic by Brian Engel/Rice University)

They found that protein receptors on the surface of cancer cells go into overdrive to stimulate the production of MUC1, a glycoprotein that forms mucin, aka mucus. It covers the exposed tips of the elongated epithelial cells that coat internal organs like lungs, stomachs and intestines to protect them from infection.

But when associated with cancer cells, these slippery agents do their jobs too well. They cover the cells completely, help them metastasize and protect them from attack by chemotherapy and the immune system.

Details of the new work led by biochemist Daniel Carson, dean of Rice’s Wiess School of Natural Sciences, appear in the Journal of Cellular Biochemistry.

In the paper, Carson, lead author Neeraja Dharmaraj, a postdoctoral researcher, and graduate student Brian Engel described MUC1 overexpression as particularly insidious not only for the way it protects tumor cells and promotes metastasis, but also because the cells create a feedback loop in which epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) and MUC1 interact to promote each other.

Carson described EGFR as a powerful transmembrane protein that stimulates normal cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. “What hadn’t been considered is whether this activated receptor might actually promote the expression of MUC1, which would then further elevate the levels of EGFR and create this vicious cycle.

“That’s the question we asked, and the answer is ‘yes,’” he said.

Carson compared mucus to Teflon. “Things don’t stick to it easily, which is normally what you want. It’s a primary barrier that keeps nasty stuff like pathogenic bacteria and viruses from getting into your cells,” he said.

But cancer cells “subvert systems and find ways to get out of control,” he said. “They auto-activate EGFR by making their own growth factor ligands, for example, or mutating the receptor so it doesn’t require the ligand anymore. It’s always on.”

Mucin proteins can then cover entire surface of a cell. “That lets (the cell) detach and move away from the site of a primary tumor,” while still preventing contact with immune system cells and cytotoxins that could otherwise kill cancer cells, Carson said.

Hope comes in the form of a controversial drug, rosiglitazone, in the thiazolidinedione class of medications used in diabetes treatment, he said. The drug is suspected of causing heart problems over long-term use by diabetes patients. But tests on cancer cell lines at Rice found that it effectively attenuates the activation of EGFR and reduces MUC1 expression. That could provide a way to weaken the mucus shield.

“Chronic use of rosiglitazone can produce heart problems in a subset of patients, but if you’re dying of pancreatic cancer, you’re not worried about the long term,” Carson said. ”If you can reduce mucin levels in just a few days by using these drugs, they might make cancer cells easier to kill by established methods.”

He said more work is required to see if rosiglitazone or some variant is suitable for trials. “We think it’s best to understand all the effects,” he said. “That might give us a rational way to modify these compounds, to avoid unwanted side effects and focus on what we want them to do.”

Carson is the Schlumberger Chair of Advanced Studies and Research and a professor of biochemistry and cell biology with a joint appointment in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. He also is Rice’s vice provost for strategic partnerships.

The National Institutes of Health and Rice University supported the research.

David Ruth | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.rice.edu

Further reports about: Biochemistry EGFR MUC1 cancer cells heart problems immune system pancreatic cancer

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Show me your leaves - Health check for urban trees
12.12.2017 | Gesellschaft für Ökologie e.V.

nachricht Liver Cancer: Lipid Synthesis Promotes Tumor Formation
12.12.2017 | Universität Basel

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Long-lived storage of a photonic qubit for worldwide teleportation

MPQ scientists achieve long storage times for photonic quantum bits which break the lower bound for direct teleportation in a global quantum network.

Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor...

Im Focus: Electromagnetic water cloak eliminates drag and wake

Detailed calculations show water cloaks are feasible with today's technology

Researchers have developed a water cloaking concept based on electromagnetic forces that could eliminate an object's wake, greatly reducing its drag while...

Im Focus: Scientists channel graphene to understand filtration and ion transport into cells

Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.

To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...

Im Focus: Towards data storage at the single molecule level

The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.

Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...

Im Focus: Successful Mechanical Testing of Nanowires

With innovative experiments, researchers at the Helmholtz-Zentrums Geesthacht and the Technical University Hamburg unravel why tiny metallic structures are extremely strong

Light-weight and simultaneously strong – porous metallic nanomaterials promise interesting applications as, for instance, for future aeroplanes with enhanced...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

See, understand and experience the work of the future

11.12.2017 | Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

AKL’18: The opportunities and challenges of digitalization in the laser industry

07.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Long-lived storage of a photonic qubit for worldwide teleportation

12.12.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Multi-year submarine-canyon study challenges textbook theories about turbidity currents

12.12.2017 | Earth Sciences

Electromagnetic water cloak eliminates drag and wake

12.12.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>