Many disease-causing bacteria, such as Yersinia, Salmonella, Shigella, and Chlamydia make use of a dedicated protein transport system to transmit pathogenic proteins to host cells. These so-called type-3 secretion systems (T3SS) consist of hollow pin-like structures on the outer shell of the bacteria. Virulence proteins that are exported through this structure are transported into host cells via an unknown mechanism.
The mechanism for this transport has previously been proposed to be occurring by injection via the pin-like structure directly from the inner part of the bacterium into the cytoplasma of the host cell. These researchers at Umeå University have now shown that virulence proteins exist on the outside of the bacterium before it has bound to the host cell and that these proteins can be transported into the host cell via a bacteria-associated protein complex. These pioneering findings are a major breakthrough in our understanding of T3SS-dependent bacteria and also open new avenues for developing antibiotics that are more specific to this type of bacteria.
In modern medical research scientists are looking for new methods for delivering proteins into cancer cells. These findings may facilitate the development of such systems by making use of the T3SS protein complex.
Hans Fällman | idw
Modern genetic sequencing tools give clearer picture of how corals are related
17.08.2017 | University of Washington
The irresistible fragrance of dying vinegar flies
16.08.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für chemische Ökologie
Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.
As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...
Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.
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For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.
While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...
An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.
The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...
A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...
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