HDAC8 overexpression is associated with a poor prognosis in human neuroblastoma patients. "As there are many different isoforms of histone deacetylases, it is crucial to understand the specific function of each -- with the putative goal of targeting a specific subset for a specific disease process," explains Dr. Mike Haberland, lead author on the study.
Dr. Olson's team explored the role of HDAC8 in verterbrate skull morphogenesis, using a strain of knockout mice specifically lacking HDAC8 in cranial neural crest cells. Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a specialized group of embryonic cells that – among other things – have evolved to generate the unsegmented vertebrate head, which has allowed vertebrates to transform from a passive, filter feeding animal into an active predator with paired eyes, an enlarged brain and protective skull, and ultimately, teeth and jaws.
The researchers found that HDAC8 deletion causes a deficiency of cranial NCCs, resulting in skull dysmorphism and instability, and perinatal death due to brain trauma. Microarray profiling revealed that HDAC8 represses multiple homeobox transcription factors that are active in the cranial NCC population, and function to pattern the frontal skull. Thus, HDAC8 has a crucial role in the epigenetic control of vertebrate skull development.
Heather Cosel-Pieper | EurekAlert!
A Map of the Cell’s Power Station
18.08.2017 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau
On the way to developing a new active ingredient against chronic infections
21.08.2017 | Deutsches Zentrum für Infektionsforschung
Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.
As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...
Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.
Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...
For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.
While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...
An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.
The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...
A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...
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21.08.2017 | Materials Sciences