The finding by researchers with the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA may prove to be important in controlling diseases like cancer, where the regulation of certain genes plays a role in disease development.
"Any way you can control genes will be hugely important for human disease and cancer," said Steven E. Jacobsen, a professor of molecular, cell and developmental biology in the Life Sciences and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. "Cancer is generally a problem of genes being inappropriately turned off or mutated, like tumor suppressors genes, or genes that should be off getting switched on."
The study appears in the July issue of the journal Genome Biology.
5hmC is formed from the DNA base cytosine by adding a methyl group and then a hydroxy group. The molecule is important in epigenetics - the study of changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the DNA sequence - because the newly formed hydroxymethyl group on the cytosine can potentially switch a gene on and off, Jacobsen said.
The molecule 5hmC was only recently discovered, and its function has not been clearly understood, Jacobsen said. Until now, researchers didn't know where 5hmC was located within the genome.
"That is important to know because it helps you to understand how it is functioning and what it's being used for," said Jacobsen, who also is a researcher with UCLA's Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center. "We had known that DNA could be modified by 5hmC, but it wasn't clear where on the genome this was occurring."
Jacobsen, whose lab studies the molecular genetics and genomics of DNA methylation patterning, used genomics to define where in human embryonic stem cells the 5hmC was present. They used human embryonic stem cells because it had been shown previously that the molecule is abundant in those cells, as well as in brain cells, Jacobsen said.
In the study, Jacobsen found that 5hmC was associated with genes and tended to be found on genes that were active. The study also revealed that 5hmC was present on a type of DNA regulatory element, called enhancers, which help control gene expression. In particular, 5hmC was present on enhancers that are crucial for defining the nature of the human embryonic stem cells.
The results suggest that 5hmC plays a role in the activation of genes. This is opposite of the role of the more well studied 5mC (DNA methylation), which is involved in silencing genes. This relationship is in line with the view that 5hmC is created directly from 5mC.
"If we can understand the function of 5hmC, that will lead to greater understanding of how genes are turned on and off and that could lead to the development of methods for controlling gene regulation," Jacobsen said.
Moving forward, Jacobsen and his team will seek to uncover the mechanism by which 5hmC is created from DNA methylation and how it becomes localized to particular areas of the genome, such as the enhancers.
The two-year study was funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, a Fred Eiserling and Judith Lengyel Graduate Doctoral Fellowship, the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society, the National Institutes of Health and by an Innovation Award from the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine & Stem Cell Research at UCLA.
The stem cell center was launched in 2005 with a UCLA commitment of $20 million over five years. A $20 million gift from the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation in 2007 resulted in the renaming of the center. With more than 200 members, the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research is committed to a multi-disciplinary, integrated collaboration of scientific, academic and medical disciplines for the purpose of understanding adult and human embryonic stem cells. The center supports innovation, excellence and the highest ethical standards focused on stem cell research with the intent of facilitating basic scientific inquiry directed towards future clinical applications to treat disease. The center is a collaboration of the David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA's Jonsson Cancer Center, the Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science and the UCLA College of Letters and Science. To learn more about the center, visit our web site at http://www.stemcell.ucla.edu
Further reports about: > Broad Institute > Cancer > DNA > DNA methylation > Medical Wellness > Regenerative Therapien > Science TV > Stem cell innovation > UCLA > brain cell > cell death > clinical application > embryonic stem > embryonic stem cell > human embryonic stem cell > methyl group > molecular genetic > stem cells
New catalyst controls activation of a carbon-hydrogen bond
21.11.2017 | Emory Health Sciences
The main switch
21.11.2017 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau
The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.
Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...
Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...
15.11.2017 | Event News
15.11.2017 | Event News
30.10.2017 | Event News
21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
21.11.2017 | Life Sciences