Study detects hormone receptor's key role in normal organ development and function
A discovery by UC Irvine endocrinologists about the importance of cell surface receptors for estrogen has the potential to change how researchers view the hormone's role in normal organ development and function.
UC Irvine's Dr. Ellis Levin said what this study shows is that both nuclear and cell membrane estrogen receptors are required to collaborate for normal organ development and function.
Credit: UC Irvine
To date, scientists in the field focused on receptors in the cell's nucleus as the primary site for estrogen's effect on gene activity and organ development and function. There has been acknowledgement of similar estrogen receptors outside of the nucleus but much debate as to whether they are important.
To investigate this, Dr. Ellis Levin, professor of medicine at UC Irvine, employed a knock-in mouse that prevented the main estrogen receptor, ER-alpha, from trafficking to the cell membrane.
As a result, Levin found that many organs in the female mice were extremely abnormal, including the mammary gland, uterus, and ovaries. Additionally, pituitary hormone production and fat development were also severely impacted, and the mice were completely infertile.
"Until now, research has taken a narrow view on the importance of estrogen signaling outside the nucleus during development," Levin said. "What this study shows is that both nuclear and cell membrane estrogen receptors are required to collaborate for normal organ development and function."
The implications of this discover move beyond development, Levin added, and can include estrogen's role in causing cancers, or preventing cardiovascular diseases and bone diseases. Current therapeutic efforts propose to target estrogen's ability in the nucleus to turn genes on and off, but Levin notes new approaches should also explore irregularities of functions at cell membrane receptors that affect disease.
"The cell membrane receptor is very sophisticated, impacting the nuclear receptor action and modifying certain proteins and their functions throughout the cells of many organs," Levin said. "By studying how to regulate the partnership between these two receptor sets, and modulate membrane receptor signaling, we can understand how to better treat estrogen-linked diseases and gain benefits in other aspects."
Study results appear in Developmental Cell. Ali Pedram of UC Irvine; Mahnaz Razandi with the Veterans Affairs Medical Center of Long Beach, Calif.; Michael Lewis with the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston; and Stephen Hammes with the University of Rochester, contributed to the study, which received support from a Merit Review Award from the Department of Veterans Affairs and the National Institutes of Health (grant 2RO1CA100366).
About the University of California, Irvine: Located in coastal Orange County, near a thriving employment hub in one of the nation's safest cities, UC Irvine was founded in 1965. One of only 62 members of the Association of American Universities, it's ranked first among U.S. universities under 50 years old by the London-based Times Higher Education. The campus has produced three Nobel laureates and is known for its academic achievement, premier research, innovation and anteater mascot. Led by Chancellor Michael Drake since 2005, UC Irvine has more than 28,000 students and offers 192 degree programs. It's Orange County's second-largest employer, contributing $4.3 billion annually to the local economy.
Media access: UC Irvine maintains an online directory of faculty available as experts to the media at today.uci.edu/experts. Radio programs/stations may, for a fee, use an on-campus ISDN line to interview UC Irvine faculty and experts, subject to availability and university approval. For more UC Irvine news, visit news.uci.edu. Additional resources for journalists may be found at communications.uci.edu/for-journalists.
Tom Vasich | Eurek Alert!
Nerves control the body’s bacterial community
26.09.2017 | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
Ageless ears? Elderly barn owls do not become hard of hearing
26.09.2017 | Carl von Ossietzky-Universität Oldenburg
Controlling electronic current is essential to modern electronics, as data and signals are transferred by streams of electrons which are controlled at high speed. Demands on transmission speeds are also increasing as technology develops. Scientists from the Chair of Laser Physics and the Chair of Applied Physics at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have succeeded in switching on a current with a desired direction in graphene using a single laser pulse within a femtosecond ¬¬ – a femtosecond corresponds to the millionth part of a billionth of a second. This is more than a thousand times faster compared to the most efficient transistors today.
Graphene is up to the job
At the productronica trade fair in Munich this November, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presenting Laser-Based Tape-Automated Bonding, LaserTAB for short. The experts from Aachen will be demonstrating how new battery cells and power electronics can be micro-welded more efficiently and precisely than ever before thanks to new optics and robot support.
Fraunhofer ILT from Aachen relies on a clever combination of robotics and a laser scanner with new optics as well as process monitoring, which it has developed...
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
19.09.2017 | Event News
12.09.2017 | Event News
06.09.2017 | Event News
26.09.2017 | Life Sciences
26.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
26.09.2017 | Information Technology