Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

UC Davis team "spikes" stem cells to generate myelin

29.08.2013
Findings hold promise for developing regenerative therapies for spinal cord injuries and diseases such as multiple sclerosis

Stem cell technology has long offered the hope of regenerating tissue to repair broken or damaged neural tissue. Findings from a team of UC Davis investigators have brought this dream a step closer by developing a method to generate functioning brain cells that produce myelin — a fatty, insulating sheath essential to normal neural conduction.


Myelination of spiking and non-spiking mESC-OPCs © UC Regents

“Our findings represent an important conceptual advance in stem cell research,” said Wenbin Deng, principal investigator of the study and associate professor at the UC Davis Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine. “We have bioengineered the first generation of myelin-producing cells with superior regenerative capacity.”

The brain is made up predominantly of two cell types: neurons and glial cells. Neurons are regarded as responsible for thought and sensation. Glial cells surround, support and communicate with neurons, helping neurons process and transmit information using electrical and chemical signals. One type of glial cell — the oligodendrocyte — produces a sheath called myelin that provides support and insulation to neurons. Myelin, which has been compared to insulation around electrical wires that helps to prevent short circuits, is essential for normal neural conduction and brain function; well-recognized conditions involving defective myelin development or myelin loss include multiple sclerosis and leukodystrophies.

In this study, the UC Davis team first developed a novel protocol to efficiently induce embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to differentiate into oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs), early cells that normally develop into oligodendrocytes. Although this has been successfully done by other researchers, the UC Davis method results in a purer population of OPCs, according to Deng, with fewer other cell types arising from their technique.

They next compared electrophysiological properties of the derived OPCs to naturally occurring OPCs. They found that unlike natural OPCs, the ESC-derived OPCs lacked sodium ion channels in their cell membranes, making them unable to generate spikes when electrically stimulated. Using a technique called viral transduction, they then introduced DNA that codes for sodium channels into the ESC-derived OPCs. These OPCs then expressed ion channels in their cells and developed the ability to generate spikes.

According to Deng, this is the first time that scientists have successfully generated OPCs with so-called spiking properties. This achievement allowed them to compare the capabilities of spiking cells to non-spiking cells.

In cell culture, they found that only spiking OPCs received electrical input from neurons, and they showed superior capability to mature into oligodendrocytes.

They also transplanted spiking and non-spiking OPCs into the spinal cord and brains of mice that are genetically unable to produce myelin. Both types of OPCs had the capability to mature into oligo-dendrocytes and produce myelin, but those from spiking OPCs produced longer and thicker myelin sheaths around axons.

“We actually developed ‘super cells’ with an even greater capacity to spike than natural cells,” Deng said. “This appears to give them an edge for maturing into oligodendrocytes and producing better myelin.”

It is well known that adult human neural tissue has a poor capacity to regenerate naturally. Although early cells such as OPCs are present, they do not regenerate tissue very effectively when disease or injury strikes.

Deng believes that replacing glial cells with the enhanced spiking OPCs to treat neural injuries and diseases has the potential to be a better strategy than replacing neurons, which tend to be more problematic to work with. Providing the proper structure and environment for neurons to live may be the best approach to regenerate healthy neural tissue. He also notes that many diverse conditions that have not traditionally been considered to be myelin-related diseases – including schizophrenia, epilepsy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) – actually are now recognized to involve defective myelin.

The article, titled “Generation and characterization of spiking and non-spiking oligodendroglial progenitor cells from embryonic stem cells,” is available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23940003 in the journal Stem Cells.

Other study authors affiliated with the UC Davis Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine and/or the Institute for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Shriners Hospitals for Children are Peng Jiang, Chen Chen, Vimal Selvaraj, Wei Lu, Daniel Feldman and David Pleasure. The team also included Xiao-Bo Liu of the UC Davis Center for Neuroscience, and Ronald Li, who was at UC Davis at the time of the research, and now at the University of Hong Kong, China, and Ying Liu, now with the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston.

This research was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (R01NS061983 and R01ES015988, the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, Shriners Hospitals for Children and the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine.

UC Davis is playing a leading role in regenerative medicine, with nearly 150 scientists working on a variety of stem cell-related research projects at campus locations in both Davis and Sacramento. The UC Davis Institute for Regenerative Cures, a facility supported by the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM), opened in 2010 on the Sacramento campus. This $62 million facility is the university's hub for stem cell science. It includes Northern California's largest academic Good Manufacturing Practice laboratory, with state-of-the-art equipment and manufacturing rooms for cellular and gene therapies. UC Davis also has a Translational Human Embryonic Stem Cell Shared Research Facility in Davis and a collaborative partnership with the Institute for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine at Shriners Hospital for Children Northern California. All of the programs and facilities complement the university's Clinical and Translational Science Center, and focus on turning stem cells into cures.

Charles Casey | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu
http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/stemcellresearch

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht The balancing act: An enzyme that links endocytosis to membrane recycling
07.12.2016 | National Centre for Biological Sciences

nachricht Transforming plant cells from generalists to specialists
07.12.2016 | Duke University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

NTU scientists build new ultrasound device using 3-D printing technology

07.12.2016 | Health and Medicine

The balancing act: An enzyme that links endocytosis to membrane recycling

07.12.2016 | Life Sciences

How to turn white fat brown

07.12.2016 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>