The most common form of strokes are caused by a sudden reduction in blood flow to the brain (ischemia) that leads to an inadequate supply of oxygen and nutrients. These so-called ischemic strokes are one of the leading causes of death and disability in industrialized nations.
If they are not immediately remedied by medical intervention, areas of the brain may die off. In the journal Angewandte Chemie, Korean researchers have now proposed a new approach for supplemental treatment: Ceria nanoparticles could trap the reactive oxygen compounds that result from ischemia and cause cells to die.
When blood flow to areas of the brain is restricted, reactive oxygen compounds like superoxide radical anions (O2• –), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals (HO• –) form and accumulate. These species cause oxidative damage and are responsible for tissue damage and cell death during a stroke. Nerve connections and neurovascular units are destroyed and the function of the brain in these areas stops. Despite various treatments that primarily combat the causes of reduced blood flow, such as thrombosis, there has been no way to protect nerves from oxidative damage after an acute ischemic stroke. Seung-Hoon Lee, Taeghwan Hyeon, and their team at Seoul National University hope that nanoparticles made of ceria may represent a new approach for treatment.
Cells contain enzymes that can break down reactive oxygen species: superoxide dismutases, which convert superoxide anions to hydrogen peroxide; and catalase, which splits hydrogen peroxide. Ceria nanoparticles can do both. How does this work? The cerium in ceria crystals is present in the form of Ce4+. However, if the particle size is reduced to a few nanometers in diameter, some spots on the surface are missing oxygen atoms. These places have Ce3+ instead, which can easily be reduced back to Ce4+ and can reversibly bind oxygen.
The researchers treated cell cultures with a substance that increases the concentrations of reactive oxygen species, which leads to increased cell death. Treatment with cerium oxide nanoparticles drastically improved the cell survival rate. In animal trials, the researchers induced ischemic strokes in rats. Intravenously administered ceria nanoparticles considerably reduced the stroke volume and nerve damage. An optimized, carefully balanced dose is necessary, however.
Interestingly, the concentrations of ceria nanoparticles in the healthy areas of the brain were very low, while those in the ischemic areas were drastically elevated. The researchers speculate that the ceria nanoparticles can barely pass through the intact blood-brain barrier. However, the barrier is damaged in the ischemic areas, allowing the diseased areas of the brain to be reached and oxidative damage to be stopped.
Author: Taeghwan Hyeon, Seoul National University (Korea), http://nanomat.snu.ac.kr/index.php?mid=DirectorTitle: Ceria Nanoparticles that Protect against Ischemic Stroke
Taeghwan Hyeon | Angewandte Chemie
No gene is an island
25.07.2017 | Institute of Science and Technology Austria
21.07.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe
Fraunhofer IPA has developed a proximity sensor made from silicone and carbon nanotubes (CNT) which detects objects and determines their position. The materials and printing process used mean that the sensor is extremely flexible, economical and can be used for large surfaces. Industry and research partners can use and further develop this innovation straight away.
At first glance, the proximity sensor appears to be nothing special: a thin, elastic layer of silicone onto which black square surfaces are printed, but these...
3-D shape acquisition using water displacement as the shape sensor for the reconstruction of complex objects
A global team of computer scientists and engineers have developed an innovative technique that more completely reconstructs challenging 3D objects. An ancient...
Physicists have developed a new technique that uses electrical voltages to control the electron spin on a chip. The newly-developed method provides protection from spin decay, meaning that the contained information can be maintained and transmitted over comparatively large distances, as has been demonstrated by a team from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute. The results have been published in Physical Review X.
For several years, researchers have been trying to use the spin of an electron to store and transmit information. The spin of each electron is always coupled...
What is the mass of a proton? Scientists from Germany and Japan successfully did an important step towards the most exact knowledge of this fundamental constant. By means of precision measurements on a single proton, they could improve the precision by a factor of three and also correct the existing value.
To determine the mass of a single proton still more accurate – a group of physicists led by Klaus Blaum and Sven Sturm of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear...
The research team of Prof. Dr. Oliver Einsle at the University of Freiburg's Institute of Biochemistry has long been exploring the functioning of nitrogenase....
21.07.2017 | Event News
19.07.2017 | Event News
12.07.2017 | Event News
25.07.2017 | Life Sciences
25.07.2017 | Materials Sciences
24.07.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering