Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Translation error tracked in the brain of dementia patients

08.02.2013
In certain dementias silent areas of the genetic code are translated into highly unusual proteins by mistake. An international team of scientists including researchers from the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) in Munich and the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU) present this finding in the online edition of “Science”.
The proteins that have now been identified shouldn’t actually exist. Nevertheless, they build the core of cellular aggregates whose identity has been enigmatic until now. These aggregates are typically associated with hereditary neurodegenerative diseases including variants of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), also known as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). They are likely to be damaging and might be a target for therapy.

FTD and ALS are part of a group of neurodegenerative diseases that show a broad and overlapping variety of symptoms: Patients often suffer from dementia, personality changes and may also be affected by language abnormalities and movement disorders. The problems often arise before the age of 65 without a clear cause. However, about 30 percent of cases are linked to a genetic cause. In Europe approximately 10 percent of patients show a common genetic feature:
In their DNA (the carrier of the genetic code) a particular short sequence appears in numerous copies one after another. Furthermore, proteins of unknown identity accumulate inside the brain of these patients. As it turns out both findings are directly related – that is what the team of researchers including molecular biologists Dieter Edbauer and Christian Haass has now been able to show.

“We have found that the proteins are linked to a genetic peculiarity which many patients have in common. At a certain location inside the gene C9orf72 there are several hundred repeats of the sequence GGGGCC, while healthy people display less than 20 such copies,” explains Prof. Edbauer, who researches at the DZNE and the LMU. “But it is surprising that these proteins are actually made, because these repeats fall into a region of the DNA that should not be translated into proteins.”

An area of DNA assumed to be silent

The DNA holds the blueprints for building proteins. In general, the beginning of such a blueprint is indicated by a certain molecular start signal, but the usual signal is missing in this case. The region of DNA comprising the numerous repeats should therefore not be translated into proteins. It seems that the process of protein synthesis is initiated in a non-textbook way. “Although quite rare there are two known alternatives to the common mechanism. Which procedure applies here, we don’t know yet,” says Prof. Haass, Site Speaker of the DZNE in Munich and chair of Metabolic Biochemistry at LMU.
Nevertheless, in cell culture experiments the researchers were able to show that long repeats of the sequence GGGGCC may in fact lead to the production of proteins, even though the usual start signal is missing. Furthermore, they identified the same proteins in the particles that typically accumulate in the brain of patients. The scientist could also identify their composition: They turned out to be dipeptid-repeat proteins, which comprise a very large number of identical building blocks.

“These are very extraordinary proteins that usually don’t show-up in the organism,” Edbauer notes. “As far as we know, they are completely useless and scarcely soluble. Therefore, they tend to aggregate and seem to damage the nerve cells. We haven’t formally proven toxicity, but there is ample evidence.” Because of their peculiarity these proteins might be an interesting target for new therapies. “As the mechanism of their production is so unusual, we may find ways to inhibit their synthesis without interfering with the formation of other proteins. One could also try to block their aggregation and accelerate their decomposition.”

The scientists have applied for a patent and are pursuing a major goal. “At the DZNE in Munich it is our dream to develop a therapy against these devastating diseases,“ Haass and Edbauer conclude.

Original Publication:
„The C9orf72 GGGGCC Repeat is Translated into Aggregating Dipeptide-Repeat Proteins in FTLD/ALS”, Kohji Mori, Shih-Ming Weng, Thomas Arzberger, Stephanie May, Kristin Rentzsch, Elisabeth Kremmer, Bettina Schmid, Hans A. Kretzschmar, Marc Cruts, Christine Van Broeckhoven, Christian Haass, Dieter Edbauer, Science Express: https://www.sciencemag.org/content/early/2013/02/07/science.1232927.full

The German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) investigates the causes of diseases of the nervous system and develops strategies for prevention, treatment and care. It is an institution of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres with sites in Berlin, Bonn, Dresden, Göttingen, Magdeburg, Munich, Rostock/Greifswald, Tübingen and Witten. The DZNE cooperates closely with universities, their clinics and other research facilities. Co-operation partners in Munich include the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU).

Dr. Marcus Neitzert | idw
Further information:
http://www.dzne.de/en

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Novel 'repair system' discovered in algae may yield new tools for biotechnology
29.07.2016 | Boyce Thompson Institute

nachricht Molecular troublemakers instead of antibiotics?
29.07.2016 | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Self-assembling nano inks form conductive and transparent grids during imprint

Transparent electronics devices are present in today’s thin film displays, solar cells, and touchscreens. The future will bring flexible versions of such devices. Their production requires printable materials that are transparent and remain highly conductive even when deformed. Researchers at INM – Leibniz Institute for New Materials have combined a new self-assembling nano ink with an imprint process to create flexible conductive grids with a resolution below one micrometer.

To print the grids, an ink of gold nanowires is applied to a substrate. A structured stamp is pressed on the substrate and forces the ink into a pattern. “The...

Im Focus: The Glowing Brain

A new Fraunhofer MEVIS method conveys medical interrelationships quickly and intuitively with innovative visualization technology

On the monitor, a brain spins slowly and can be examined from every angle. Suddenly, some sections start glowing, first on the side and then the entire back of...

Im Focus: Newly discovered material property may lead to high temp superconductivity

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Ames Laboratory have discovered an unusual property of purple bronze that may point to new ways to achieve high temperature superconductivity.

While studying purple bronze, a molybdenum oxide, researchers discovered an unconventional charge density wave on its surface.

Im Focus: Mapping electromagnetic waveforms

Munich Physicists have developed a novel electron microscope that can visualize electromagnetic fields oscillating at frequencies of billions of cycles per second.

Temporally varying electromagnetic fields are the driving force behind the whole of electronics. Their polarities can change at mind-bogglingly fast rates, and...

Im Focus: Continental tug-of-war - until the rope snaps

Breakup of continents with two speed: Continents initially stretch very slowly along the future splitting zone, but then move apart very quickly before the onset of rupture. The final speed can be up to 20 times faster than in the first, slow extension phase.phases

Present-day continents were shaped hundreds of millions of years ago as the supercontinent Pangaea broke apart. Derived from Pangaea’s main fragments Gondwana...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Clash of Realities 2016: 7th Conference on the Art, Technology and Theory of Digital Games

29.07.2016 | Event News

GROWING IN CITIES - Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Urban Gardening

15.07.2016 | Event News

SIGGRAPH2016 Computer Graphics Interactive Techniques, 24-28 July, Anaheim, California

15.07.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Vortex laser offers hope for Moore's Law

29.07.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Novel 'repair system' discovered in algae may yield new tools for biotechnology

29.07.2016 | Life Sciences

Clash of Realities 2016: 7th Conference on the Art, Technology and Theory of Digital Games

29.07.2016 | Event News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>