Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New tool offers unprecedented access for root studies

21.12.2011
Plant roots are fascinating plant organs – they not only anchor the plant, but are also the world's most efficient mining companies. Roots live in darkness and direct the activities of the other organs, as well as interact with the surrounding environment. Charles Darwin posited in The Power of Movement of Plants that the root system acts as a plant's brain.

Due to the difficulty of accessing root tissue in intact live plants, research of these hidden parts has always lagged behind research on the more visible parts of plants. But now: a new technology--developed jointly by Carnegie and Stanford University--could revolutionize root research. The findings will be published in the large-scale biology section of the December issue of The Plant Cell.

Understanding roots is crucial to the study of plant physiology because they serve as the interface between a plant and the soil--being solely responsible for taking up water and essential mineral nutrients. Roots must respond quickly to various environmental conditions such as water availability (for example, when being soaked by rain after a period of drought). They must find and exploit nutrients; they must respond to salinization and acidification of the soil; and they must integrate diverse signals such as light and gravity. All of these aspects are very difficult to analyze because of a root's inaccessibility in the soil.

The research team's efforts could revolutionize the entire field of root studies. The team is comprised of a group of plant scientists, including the paper's lead author, Guido Grossmann, along with his Carnegie colleagues (Woei-Jiun Guo, David Ehrhardt and Wolf Frommer) and a group of chemical engineers from Stanford University and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, (Rene Sit, Stephen Quake and Matthias Meier).

The new technology, called the RootChip, allowed the research team to study roots of eight individual seedlings at the same time, and to alter their growth environment simultaneously or independently and with extraordinary precision. Optical sensors, developed and inserted into the root tissue by Frommer's team, allowed the researchers to examine how the roots responded to changes in nutrient supply levels in real time.

"This new tool provides a major advance for studying root biology at the cellular and subcellular level," said Wolf Frommer, director of Carnegie's plant biology department. "The growth conditions can be freely varied over several days, allowing us to monitor actual growth and development of roots and root hairs and using our optical biosensors to study nutrient acquisition and carbon sequestration in real time."

The RootChip was capable of monitoring a root's response to changing levels of the sugar glucose in the surrounding environment. Root growth slowed down when the leaves were not exposed to light, as predicted, because the leaf's photosynthesis is required to supply the energy for root growth. The RootChip also revealed the long-suspected fact that galactose, a sugar highly similar to glucose, is toxic to roots and inhibits their growth and function.

The RootChip is a generic tool and can be altered to test any aspect of root physiology that can be analyzed visually. It can easily be modified to study more than 30 seedlings at the same time and can be expanded for use with plants used to make biofuels, such as Brachypodium and foxtail millet.

This research was supported by grants from NSF and DOE, as well as an EMBO long-term fellowship and the Alexander V. Humboldt Society.

The Carnegie Institution for Science (carnegiescience.edu) is a private, nonprofit organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., with six research departments throughout the U.S. Since its founding in 1902, the Carnegie Institution has been a pioneering force in basic scientific research. Carnegie scientists are leaders in plant biology, developmental biology, astronomy, materials science, global ecology, and Earth and planetary science.

Wolf B. Frommer | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.carnegiescience.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Bolstering fat cells offers potential new leukemia treatment
17.10.2017 | McMaster University

nachricht Ocean atmosphere rife with microbes
17.10.2017 | King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (KAUST)

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Ocean atmosphere rife with microbes

17.10.2017 | Life Sciences

Neutrons observe vitamin B6-dependent enzyme activity useful for drug development

17.10.2017 | Life Sciences

NASA finds newly formed tropical storm lan over open waters

17.10.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>