Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Toll-like receptors play role in brain damage in newborns

23.11.2011
Two out of every thousand babies are at risk of brain damage in connection with birth. Researchers at the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, have identified mechanisms behind these injuries, which could lead to better treatment and a richer life for the infants affected.

Roughly two in every thousand babies are at risk of suffering brain damage as a result of events before, during and after delivery. Infections in the blood or a reduced supply of oxygen and blood can lead to inflammation in the brain, causing injury. This type of brain damage, which is much more common in premature babies, can result in neurological problems such as cerebral palsy, learning difficulties and epilepsy.

Toll-like receptors

Researchers at the University of Gothenburg’s Sahlgrenska Academy have now found that toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the innate immune system play a major role in the state of the brain in newborns. The discovery could lead to better treatment and a richer life for many children.

Key role in the immature brain

Research into TLRs, which was rewarded with this year’s Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, has previously shown that these receptors are involved in stroke-related brain damage in adults. The researchers in Gothenburg have now shown that TLRs are also present in the immature brain and play an important role there.

“By understanding the role of toll-like receptors in the inflammatory process following brain injury, we hope eventually to find more effective treatment strategies,” says Linnea Stridh from the Sahlgrenska Academy, who presents the results in her thesis.

Simulated brain injuries

Stridh and her colleagues used mice in their studies to simulate the brain injuries seen in newborn babies. They found that special TLRs contribute to brain damage following hypoxia, where the brain is starved of oxygen.
“An infection can activate these receptors, making the brain more sensitive to hypoxia, resulting in worse brain damage,” Stridh explains. “If these signals are blocked, the degree of brain damage is reduced.”

Barrier opened

In her thesis, Stridh also looks at a protein called occludin, which has the role of gluing together cells in the blood-brain barrier.

“Our results show that there is a reduction in occludin at a genetic level following infection,” she explains. “This can lead to the opening of the barrier, making it easier for inflammatory molecules and cells in the blood to get into the brain and cause inflammation.”

The thesis “Inflammation in the immature brain; the role of toll-like receptors” was defended on 11 November 2011. neuro

TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are found on both the outside and inside of cells where they specialise in detecting specific molecules from hostile microorganisms. When a TLR detects a microorganism, the innate immune system is activated, causing inflammation to destroy the microorganism. Research on Toll-like receptors was awarded with the Nobel Prize in medicine 2012.

Bibliographi data:
Title: Regulation of Toll-like receptor 1 and -2 in neonatal mouse brain after hypoxia-ischemia
Authors: Linnea Stridh, Peter L.P. Smith, Andrew S Naylor, Xiaoyang Wang and Carina Mallard J.
Journal: Neuroinflammation 2011, 8:45
Link to article: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid...
For more information, please contact: Linnea Stridh
Telephone: +46 (0)31 7863377
Mobile: +46 (0)705 764718
E-mail: linnea.stridh@neuro.gu.se

Helena Aaberg | idw
Further information:
http://www.gu.se
http://gupea.ub.gu.se/handle/2077/27809

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Nanoparticle Exposure Can Awaken Dormant Viruses in the Lungs
16.01.2017 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt

nachricht Cholera bacteria infect more effectively with a simple twist of shape
13.01.2017 | Princeton University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

Im Focus: How to inflate a hardened concrete shell with a weight of 80 t

At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).

Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...

Im Focus: Bacterial Pac Man molecule snaps at sugar

Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.

The cells of the mouth, nose and intestinal mucosa produce large quantities of a chemical called sialic acid. Many bacteria possess a special transport system...

Im Focus: Newly proposed reference datasets improve weather satellite data quality

UMD, NOAA collaboration demonstrates suitability of in-orbit datasets for weather satellite calibration

"Traffic and weather, together on the hour!" blasts your local radio station, while your smartphone knows the weather halfway across the world. A network of...

Im Focus: Repairing defects in fiber-reinforced plastics more efficiently

Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) are frequently used in the aeronautic and automobile industry. However, the repair of workpieces made of these composite materials is often less profitable than exchanging the part. In order to increase the lifetime of FRP parts and to make them more eco-efficient, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) and the Apodius GmbH want to combine a new measuring device for fiber layer orientation with an innovative laser-based repair process.

Defects in FRP pieces may be production or operation-related. Whether or not repair is cost-effective depends on the geometry of the defective area, the tools...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

Nothing will happen without batteries making it happen!

05.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Multiregional brain on a chip

16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

New technology enables 5-D imaging in live animals, humans

16.01.2017 | Information Technology

Researchers develop environmentally friendly soy air filter

16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>