Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

The secret cargo of mosquitoes - Dirofilaria repens for the first time detected in Austria

27.05.2014

Until a short while ago, infections with the parasite Dirofilaria repens was regarded as a classical traveler's disease in Austria. Mosquitoes from abroad passed the parasite on to dogs, in some cases even to humans.

The most recent research data from the Vetmeduni Vienna have shown, for the first time that the parasite has been imported to Austria and established here. In mosquitoes from the state of Burgenland, the scientists found larvae of the parasite. The infected mosquitoes possibly migrated to Austria through Eastern and Southern Europe. The results of this research were published in the journal Parasites & Vectors.


The scientists use special mosquito traps to collect the insects.

Photo: Carina Zittra / Vetmeduni Vienna

The parasite Dirofilaria repens is a roundworm that primarily attacks the subcutaneous tissue of dogs and causes lumps in the skin, swelling, and itching. Dogs, cats, foxes, wolves and martens can be infected in addition to dogs.

"In humans, 16 cases of human dirofilariosis have been recorded since the year 2000, but the dark figure is definitely higher", says the lead author Katja Silbermayr. Humans, however, are so-called dead end hosts; the parasite does not reproduce in humans and therefore poses no major risk.

Silbermayr is a veterinarian and performs research on parasitic skin diseases. She emphasizes, "So-called cutaneous dirofilariosis is quite unknown among veterinarians in our latitudes. Therefore, through our work we wish to create greater awareness among medical experts. Lumps in the skin need not necessarily be tumors; they may be a sign of dirofilariosis. Only appropriate treatment or prevention can restrain the spread of this parasite."

Austrian-wide screening discloses dirofilaria in the state of Burgenland

Experts at the Institute of Parasitology investigated about 8,000 mosquitoes from the whole of Austria in 2012. They found Dirofilaria repens in two towns: Mörbisch and Rust at the lake Neusiedl. There were two different types of mosquitoes that carried Dirofilaria repens: Anopheles maculipennis and Anopheles algeriensis.

"Basically these parasites are not choosy in selecting their vector or carrier, i.e. the mosquito. Throughout the world Dirofilaria repens is found in the most diverse types of mosquitoes. We may well be able to demonstrate these parasites in other types of mosquitoes", says Silbermayr.

The reason for immigration: traveling and adoption

The cause of immigration, according to Silbermayr, is that dog owners travel with their pets, especially to southern countries. The adoption of pets from abroad also spreads parasites into Austria. Global warming is, according to Silbermayr, no crucial factor in the spread of Dirofilaria repens.

The scientists believe that Dirofilaria repens will spread further in Austria. The parasite is already quite rampant in Spain, Portugal, Italy, Croatia, Hungary and Slovenia. "It's merely a question of time until it spreads further in Austria."

A related parasite not yet discovered in Austria

Dirofilaria immitis, also known as the heartworm, is a related but much more dangerous parasite. It is transmitted exactly like Dirofilaria repens by mosquitoes to dogs, and settles in the lungs and the heart. At these sites the heartworm, which is about 20-30 cm long, leads to heart failure, dyspnea, and general deterioration. This parasite has not yet been found in mosquitoes in Austria.

"To prevent insect bites we have preparations with a prophylactic effect, which are either applied as a spot-on to the animals' skin, or provided in tablet form. Once the parasite is in the animal, the treatment is usually laborious and long-drawn. Depending on the severity of the affliction, it may be associated with complications", explains Silbermayr.

The life cycle of Dirofilaria repens

The infectious larvae of the parasite are transferred to dogs by a mosquito bite. In the skin the larvae mate and form so-called new microfilaria, which then reach the dog's bloodstream. Mosquitoes in Austria absorb the parasite when feeding on the dog's blood and are then able to infect further animals.

The article „Autochthonous Dirofilaria repens in Austria“, by Katja Silbermayr, Barbara Eigner, Anja Joachim, Georg G Duscher, Bernhard Seidel, Franz Allerberger, Alexander Indra, Peter Hufnagl and Hans-Peter Fuehrer w Parasites & Vectors veröffentlicht. http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/7/1/226

About the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna

The University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna in Austria is one of the leading academic and research institutions in the field of Veterinary Sciences in Europe. About 1,200 employees and 2,300 students work on the campus in the north of Vienna which also houses five university clinics and various research sites. Outside of Vienna the university operates Teaching and Research Farms. http://www.vetmeduni.ac.at

Scientific Contact:
Dr. Katja Silbermayr
Institute of Parasitology
University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna (Vetmeduni Vienna)
T +43 1 25077-2211
katja.silbermayr@vetmeduni.ac.at

Released by:
Susanna Kautschitsch
Science Communication / Public Relations
University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna (Vetmeduni Vienna)
T +43 1 25077-1153
susanna.kautschitsch@vetmeduni.ac.at

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.vetmeduni.ac.at/en/infoservice/presseinformation/press-releases-2014/...

Dr. Susanna Kautschitsch | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Further reports about: Anopheles Vetmeduni larvae mosquito mosquitoes parasite parasites skin

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Subcutaneous Administration of Multispecific Antibody Makes Tumor Treatment Faster & More Tolerable
01.07.2015 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt

nachricht Why human egg cells don't age well
01.07.2015 | RIKEN

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Viaducts with wind turbines, the new renewable energy source

Wind turbines could be installed under some of the biggest bridges on the road network to produce electricity. So it is confirmed by calculations carried out by a European researchers team, that have taken a viaduct in the Canary Islands as a reference. This concept could be applied in heavily built-up territories or natural areas with new constructions limitations.

The Juncal Viaduct, in Gran Canaria, has served as a reference for Spanish and British researchers to verify that the wind blowing between the pillars on this...

Im Focus: X-rays and electrons join forces to map catalytic reactions in real-time

New technique combines electron microscopy and synchrotron X-rays to track chemical reactions under real operating conditions

A new technique pioneered at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory reveals atomic-scale changes during catalytic reactions in real...

Im Focus: Iron: A biological element?

Think of an object made of iron: An I-beam, a car frame, a nail. Now imagine that half of the iron in that object owes its existence to bacteria living two and a half billion years ago.

Think of an object made of iron: An I-beam, a car frame, a nail. Now imagine that half of the iron in that object owes its existence to bacteria living two and...

Im Focus: Thousands of Droplets for Diagnostics

Researchers develop new method enabling DNA molecules to be counted in just 30 minutes

A team of scientists including PhD student Friedrich Schuler from the Laboratory of MEMS Applications at the Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK) of...

Im Focus: Bionic eye clinical trial results show long-term safety, efficacy vision-restoring implant

Patients using Argus II experienced significant improvement in visual function and quality of life

The three-year clinical trial results of the retinal implant popularly known as the "bionic eye," have proven the long-term efficacy, safety and reliability of...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

World Conference on Regenerative Medicine in Leipzig: Last chance to submit abstracts until 2 July

25.06.2015 | Event News

World Conference on Regenerative Medicine: Abstract Submission has been extended to 24 June

16.06.2015 | Event News

MUSE hosting Europe’s largest science communication conference

11.06.2015 | Event News

 
Latest News

Siemens acquires leading UK enforcement provider Zenco Systems

02.07.2015 | Press release

Viaducts with wind turbines, the new renewable energy source

02.07.2015 | Power and Electrical Engineering

NASA sees heavy rain in Tropical Cyclone Chan-Hom

02.07.2015 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>