Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

The "Cyberwar" Against Cancer Gets a Boost from Intelligent Nanocarriers

08.10.2014

TAU researcher advances novel strategy to fight cancer by shoring up the immune system

Two years ago, Prof. Eshel Ben-Jacob of Tel Aviv University's School of Physics and Astronomy and Rice University's Center for Theoretical Biological Physics made the startling discovery that cancer, like an enemy hacker in cyberspace, targets the body's communication network to inflict widespread damage on the entire system. Cancer, he found, possessed special traits for cooperative behavior and used intricate communication to distribute tasks, share resources, and make decisions.

In research published in the Early Edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Prof. Ben-Jacob and researchers from Rice University and the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, the leading cancer treatment center in the U.S., offer new insight into the lethal interaction between cancer cells and the immune system's communications network. Prof. Ben-Jacob and the study co-authors developed a computer program that models a specific channel of cell-to-cell communication involving exosomes (nanocarriers with crucial cellular "intelligence") that both cancer and immune cells harness to communicate with other cells.

"Recent research has found that cancer is already adept at using a kind of 'cyberwarfare' against the immune system. We studied the interplay between cancer and the immune system to see how we might be able to shift the balance against cancer," said Prof. Ben-Jacob, noting a difference between the innate and the adaptive qualities of the immune system. "In the beginning, cancer is inhibited by the body's innate immunity. But once cancer escapes the immunity, there is a race between the progression of cancer and the ability of the adaptive immune system to recognize and act against it." 

Cyberwarfare of the body

"What we are dealing with is cyberwarfare, pure and simple. Cancer uses the immune systems' own communications network to attack not the soldiers but the generals that are coordinating the body's defense," said Prof. Ben-Jacob.

To better understand the role of exosome-mediated cell-to-cell communication in the battle between cancer and the immune system, the researchers created a computer model that captured the exosomal exchange between cancer cells, dendritic cells, and the other cells in the immune system.

The new model is based on earlier research, which showed that dendritic cells, mediators between the body's innate and adaptive immune systems (the former protects against all threats at all times and the latter guards more efficiently against specific, established dangers), employed exosomes to fulfil their task. The researchers discovered that, overtaken by cancer, these nanocarriers, which contain such vital components as signaling proteins, RNA snippets, and microRNAs, can command cells to change their tasks, placing the entire system at risk.

Finding a better balance between the strong and the weak

According to the new research, three possible cancer states can exist: strong, intermediary, and weak. The intermediary state — in which cancer is neither strong nor weak and in which the immune system is on high alert — could be the key to a new therapeutic approach with reduced side effects. Prof. Ben-Jacob believes it is possible to force cancer from a strong to moderate state, and then from a moderate to weak state, by alternating cycles of radiation or chemotherapy with immune-boosting treatments.

"Our first important discovery is that this situation is due to the exosome-based cyberwar between cancer and the immune system," said Prof. Ben-Jacob. "Without exosomes, the two possible states are only strong-weak and weak-strong. With exosomes, an intermediary state opens a new way to treat cancer using very a different approach."

Prof. Ben-Jacob likened the exchange to a tug-of-war between cancer and the immune system. "The challenge is to be familiar with the battlefield so that we can manipulate cancer therapies to change the balance in favor of the immune system. When cancer is detected, it is almost always in the context of a cancer-immunity competition," said Prof. Ben-Jacob. "We showed that the way to stop and reverse tumor progression without causing strong side effects is an individualized approach of mixed treatments — i.e., four days of radiation followed by a few days of immune system boosting, followed again by four days of radiation, and so on. If provided in the right order, the treatments could indeed shift the balance toward the immune system's 'victory' in reducing the cancer to the moderate-strong state."

The study was supported by the Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas, the National Science Foundation, and the Tauber Family Funds.

George Hunka | Eurek Alert!
Further information:
http://www.aftau.org/weblog-medicine--health?=&storyid4704=2114&ncs4704=3

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Could this protein protect people against coronary artery disease?
17.11.2017 | University of North Carolina Health Care

nachricht Microbial resident enables beetles to feed on a leafy diet
17.11.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für chemische Ökologie

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

Im Focus: Wrinkles give heat a jolt in pillared graphene

Rice University researchers test 3-D carbon nanostructures' thermal transport abilities

Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA detects solar flare pulses at Sun and Earth

17.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures

17.11.2017 | Health and Medicine

The importance of biodiversity in forests could increase due to climate change

17.11.2017 | Studies and Analyses

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>