Genomic research could help doctors better target a drug widely used to treat colorectal cancer patients, according to a study by Genomic Health Inc. (Nasdaq: GHDX) and the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen).
The drug, oxaliplatin, is widely used in colon cancer. It is used in early disease, following surgery in those cancers that are likely to recur. It is also used in advanced disease to slow progression of the cancer where it has spread to other parts of the body.
However, a significant number of patients experience serious side effects, including prolonged damage to the nervous system, "creating an urgent need to identify genes that are responsible for drug sensitivity or resistance, which results in directing therapy to those most likely to benefit," according to the study published in Molecular Cancer Research.
Colorectal cancer is the third most common type of cancer in the U.S., annually diagnosed in more than 146,000 Americans. It also is the third highest cause of cancer death in the U.S., annually killing nearly 50,000 people, more than who die each year on the nation's roadways. This cancer affects men and women in nearly equal numbers.
Nerve damage, or neurotoxicity, associated with oxaliplatin is most commonly manifest as pain or a loss of sensation in the hands and feet and can severely affect a patient's quality of life and ability to work. These symptoms are experienced in some form by the majority of patients receiving this drug and, for some patients, can be permanent.
The TGen/Genomic Health researchers examined the role of individual cancer genes to influence the sensitivity or resistance of colon cancer cells grown in laboratory culture. An interfering RNA screen of 500 genes — with 2,000 unique siRNA sequences —identified 27 genes that, when silenced, altered the sensitivity of colon tumor cells to oxaliplatin, causing damage to the cancer cells' DNA and inhibiting the cancer cells' ability to reproduce and survive, the study said. This study has also showed that diverse gene networks also play a role in the ability of the drug to impact colon tumors.
"These 27 genes, whose loss of function significantly affect the effectiveness of oxaliplatin, may be promising therapeutic biomarkers for oxaliplatin," said Dr. Holly Yin, head of TGen's Cellular Genomics Collaborative Center in Scottsdale, and a co-author of the study.
Dr. Robert J. Pelham, a research scientist at Redwood City, Calif.-based Genomic Health and the study's senior author, said the findings indicate a need for additional clinical studies on tumor specimens in patients treated with oxaliplatin. "Such future clinical studies could eventually lead to potential clinical applications, where patients could benefit," Dr. Pelham said.
This laboratory study has been published online and is pending print publication in Molecular Cancer Research, one of six peer-reviewed scientific journals published by the Philadelphia-based American Association for Cancer Research. Founded in 1907, AACR is the world's oldest and largest scientific organization focused on high-quality, innovative cancer research.
About Genomic Health Inc.
Genomic Health, Inc. (NASDAQ: GHDX) is a molecular diagnostics company focused on the global development and commercialization of genomic-based clinical laboratory services that analyze the underlying biology of cancer allowing physicians and patients to make individualized treatment decisions. Its lead product, the Oncotype DX® breast cancer test, has been shown to predict the likelihood of chemotherapy benefit as well as recurrence in early-stage breast cancer. In addition to this widely adopted test, Genomic Health provides the Oncotype DX colon cancer test, the first multigene expression test developed for the assessment of risk of recurrence in patients with stage II disease. As of September 30, 2010, more than 10,000 physicians in over 55 countries had ordered more than 175,000 Oncotype DX tests. Genomic Health has a robust pipeline focused on developing tests to optimize the treatment of prostate and renal cell cancers, as well as additional stages of breast and colon cancers. The company is based in Redwood City, California with European headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. For more information, please visit www.genomichealth.com.Press Contact:
Steve Yozwiak | EurekAlert!
New photocatalyst speeds up the conversion of carbon dioxide into chemical resources
29.05.2017 | DGIST (Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology)
Copper hydroxide nanoparticles provide protection against toxic oxygen radicals in cigarette smoke
29.05.2017 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
The world's highest gain high power laser amplifier - by many orders of magnitude - has been developed in research led at the University of Strathclyde.
The researchers demonstrated the feasibility of using plasma to amplify short laser pulses of picojoule-level energy up to 100 millijoules, which is a 'gain'...
Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....
Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.
The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....
An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.
We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...
Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.
Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...
24.05.2017 | Event News
23.05.2017 | Event News
22.05.2017 | Event News
29.05.2017 | Earth Sciences
29.05.2017 | Life Sciences
29.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy