Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Technique to Probe Hidden Dynamics of Molecular Biology

05.03.2010
Funded by a $1 million grant from the W.M. Keck Foundation, University of Chicago scientists are aiming to develop a reliable method for determining how biological processes emerge from molecular interactions. The method may permit them to “rewire” the regulatory circuitry of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells, which play a major role in type-2 diabetes.

“Despite the enormous amount of study directed at diabetes, there’s really very little understanding of the collective mechanisms that govern or regulate insulin secretion,” said project director Aaron Dinner, Associate Professor in Chemistry.

A second goal: to control cell behavior and function more generally, which may ultimately culminate in other applications, including the bioremediation of environmental problems. Collaborating with Dinner on the project are Louis Philipson, PhD’82, MD ’86, Professor in Medicine and Director of the University of Chicago Kovler Diabetes Center; and chemistry professors Rustem Ismagilov and Norbert Scherer, SB’82.

The four scientists share an interest in the collective behavior of cells that emerges from a complex ensemble of atoms and molecules working in concert at different scales of time and space. “In a living system you have this hierarchy of coupled time and length scales,” Dinner said. “How is it that all of these different dynamics at one time and length scale get coupled to dynamics at another scale?”

The collaborators have worked together previously in various pairs. “It seemed natural to put those different pair-wise interactions together,” Dinner said.

Philipson and Scherer, for example, worked together to pioneer a microscopy method for imaging activity inside beta cells that led up to insulin secretion under different conditions. Ismagilov and Philipson collaborated on a means of efficiently measuring and analyzing beta-cell secretions. And Dinner and Scherer have analyzed the dynamics of an oddly behaving RNA molecule.

Non-intuitive molecular behavior

Dinner and Scherer’s study revealed some non-intuitive, hidden dynamics. They experimented with the molecule in solution, expecting it to move slowly, somewhat like a person walking around in a swimming pool. But after changing the chemical solution they found that the molecule behaved in a non-intuitive way.

“It was as though something was driving it,” Dinner said.

The chemical pulses they had introduced into the molecule’s watery environment were the driving force of the dynamic oscillations they observed. In their next step, they applied the process to a bacterium, coupling cycles inside the cell that would ordinarily operate on different time scales. The scientists then analyzed the bacterium’s response to the chemical pulses for insights into its internal properties.

The similar use of optical, magnetic and spectroscopic techniques is a standard means of probing molecular dynamics. Based on their RNA research, Scherer and Dinner realized that a chemical version of the technique might provide a whole new way of studying cellular dynamics. They call their new technique “chemical perturbation spectroscopy.”

“We measure everything at a single-cell level so we can quantify in detail what each single cell is doing as it evolves through multiple generations,” Scherer said. “These studies are allowing us to lay the groundwork for how to measure perturbations that we apply to cells, and how to do the analysis. Essentially, none of this has been done before, so we have to invent the approach.”

Once the details are worked out, Scherer said, “We expect to be able to target certain cell functions and, let’s say, increase insulin output from the beta cells.”

Steve Koppes | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.uchicago.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Symbiotic bacteria: from hitchhiker to beetle bodyguard
28.04.2017 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

nachricht Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis
28.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Grenzflächen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik IGB

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Fighting drug resistant tuberculosis – InfectoGnostics meets MYCO-NET² partners in Peru

28.04.2017 | Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Wireless power can drive tiny electronic devices in the GI tract

28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering

Ice cave in Transylvania yields window into region's past

28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences

Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis

28.04.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>