Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Synchronized swimming of algae

27.07.2009
Striking high-speed footage shows 2 patterns of flagellar coordination

Using high-speed cinematography, scientists at Cambridge University have discovered that individual algal cells can regulate the beating of their flagella in and out of synchrony in a manner that controls their swimming trajectories. Their research was published on the 24th July in the journal Science.

The researchers studied the unicellular organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which has two hair-like appendages known as flagella. The beating of flagella propels Chlamydomonas through the fluid and simultaneously makes it spin about an axis.

The researchers found that cells can beat their flagella in two fundamentally distinct modes: synchronised, with nearly identical frequencies and positions, and unsynchronised, with two rather different frequencies. Using a specialised apparatus to track the swimming trajectories of individual cells, the group showed that the periods of synchrony correspond to nearly straight-line motion, while sharp turns result from the asynchronous beating. Whereas previous studies had suggested that these modes were associated with different subpopulations of cells, the new work shows that the cells actually control the frequencies and thereby switch back and forth between the two modes. In essence, this suggests Chlamydomonas has two 'gears'.

Moreover, the researchers have developed a mathematical analysis that describes the two beating flagella as "coupled oscillators," in a way similar to models of synchronised flashing of fireflies and the "Mexican wave" of people in a stadium. Analyzing terabytes of data on the patterns of synchronisation, they showed that the strength of the coupling was consistent with it arising from the fluid flows set up by the beating flagella. These observations constitute the first direct demonstration that hydrodynamic interactions are responsible for synchronisation, which has long been predicted to lead to such coordination.

Professor Raymond E. Goldstein, the Schlumberger Professor of Complex Physical Systems in the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics (DAMTP) and lead author of the study, said: "These results indicate that flagellar synchronization is a much more complex problem than had been appreciated, and involves a delicate interplay of cellular regulation, hydrodynamics, and biochemical noise."

Funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), the work is part of a larger effort to improve our knowledge of evolutionary transitions from single-cell organisms (like Chlamydomonas) to multicellular ones. In addition, the flagella of Chlamydomonas cells are nearly identical to the cilia in the human body. In many of life's processes, from reproduction to respiration, coordinated action of cilia plays a crucial role. For this reason, insight into synchronization and its control may have significant implications for human health and disease.

The group was led by Professor Goldstein and included postdoctoral researchers Dr. Marco Polin and Dr. Idan Tuval, Ph.D. student Knut Drescher, and Professor Jerry P. Gollub, a Leverhulme Visiting Professor at DAMTP from Haverford College.

For additional information please contact:
Farzana Miah, Office of Communications, University of Cambridge
Tel: +44 (0) 1223 330758
Email: fym20@admin.cam.ac.uk
Notes to editors:
1. The article 'Chlamydomonas swims with two `gears' in a eukaryotic version of run-and-tumble locomotion' was published Friday 24th July in the journal Science.

2. Video footage and image available upon request. Image and Video credit: Please credit Professor Raymond E. Goldstein, Dr. Marco Polin, and Dr. Idan Tuval.

3. About BBSRC: The Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) is the UK funding agency for research in the life sciences. Sponsored by Government, BBSRC annually invests around £450 million in a wide range of research that makes a significant contribution to the quality of life for UK citizens and supports a number of important industrial stakeholders including the agriculture, food, chemical, healthcare and pharmaceutical sectors. BBSRC carries out its mission by funding internationally competitive research, providing training in the biosciences, fostering opportunities for knowledge transfer and innovation and promoting interaction with the public and other stakeholders on issues of scientific interest in universities, centres and institutes.

For more information see: http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk

4. Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics (DAMTP) has a 50-year tradition of carrying out research of world-class excellence in a broad range of subjects across applied mathematics and theoretical physics. Members of DAMTP have made seminal theoretical advances in the development of mathematical techniques and in the application of mathematics, combined with physical reasoning, to many different areas of science. A unique strength is the G K Batchelor Laboratory, in which fundamental experimental science is also performed. Research students have always played a crucial role in DAMTP research, working on demanding research problems under the supervision of leading mathematical scientists and, in many cases, moving on to become research leaders themselves. The current aims of DAMTP are to continue this tradition, in doing so broadening the range of subject areas studied and using new mathematical and computational techniques.

Farzana Miah | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.cam.ac.uk

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht A Map of the Cell’s Power Station
18.08.2017 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

nachricht On the way to developing a new active ingredient against chronic infections
18.08.2017 | Deutsches Zentrum für Infektionsforschung

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A Map of the Cell’s Power Station

18.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Engineering team images tiny quasicrystals as they form

18.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Researchers printed graphene-like materials with inkjet

18.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>