Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Surviving without ice

14.09.2012
Arctic crustaceans use currents, deep-water migration to survive sea ice melts
With sea ice in the Arctic melting to record lows in summer months, marine animals living there face dramatic changes to their environment. Yet some crustaceans, previously thought to spend their entire lives on the underside of sea ice, were recently discovered to migrate deep underwater and follow ocean currents back to colder areas when ice disappears.

“Our findings provide a basic new understanding of the adaptations and biology of the ice-associated organisms within the Arctic Ocean,” said Mark Moline, director of the University of Delaware’s School of Marine Science and Policy in the College of Earth, Ocean, and Environment. “They also may ultimately change the perception of ice fauna as imminently threatened by the predicted disappearance of perennial sea ice.”

Moline, Jørgen Berge of the University of Tromsø and Norwegian colleagues found the crustaceans, specifically amphipods Apherusa glacialis that resemble small shrimp, well below sea ice during a rare winter, nighttime research expedition to the Fram Strait and Eurasian section of the Arctic Ocean. They determined that the crustaceans migrate downward as part of their life cycles and ride deep-ocean currents toward the North Pole.

The crustaceans’ travels appear to be an adaptive trait that both increases survival during ice-free periods and enables them to be retained in the Arctic Ocean.

The scientists refer to their findings as the “Nemo hypothesis,” based on an analogy to the Disney movie Finding Nemo in which Nemo’s father uses deep-ocean currents for transportation. In a similar mechanism, Arctic crustaceans detached from melting sea ice move into depths where the northernmost branch of the Gulf Stream System effectively transports them back into the Arctic Ocean.

Previously, these organisms were generally considered to be passively exported either out the Fram Strait or down to inhabitable depths when released from melting sea ice – either of which would be life-threatening outcomes as they lost the habitat on which they depend to survive.

“Through the Nemo hypothesis, we offer a new and exciting perspective that, although still based on a limited dataset, might change our perception of the ice-associated organisms and their future in an Arctic Ocean potentially void of summer sea ice within the next few decades,” Berge said.

From an evolutionary perspective, the migration may be an adaptation that allowed survival in a more seasonally ice-covered Arctic, as experienced several times during the last 12,000 years. Some reports indicate that the Arctic Ocean lacked summer sea ice as late as 8,000 years ago.

The findings may help explain how ice-associated organisms can survive in large populations in the Arctic when their habitat is annually reduced by up to 80 percent in the summer before re-forming in the early winter.

“We believe that this is an important contribution towards a more comprehensive understanding of potential consequences of a continued warming of the Arctic and the predicted loss of summer sea ice,” Berge said.

The article was published in Biology Letters online on Sept. 12. The work was funded primarily by the Research Council of Norway, with support for Moline provided by the U.S.-Norway Fulbright Program through his role as Distinguished Arctic Chair.

Andrea Boyle Tippett | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.udel.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Cnidarians remotely control bacteria
21.09.2017 | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel

nachricht Immune cells may heal bleeding brain after strokes
21.09.2017 | NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Highly precise wiring in the Cerebral Cortex

Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.

The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...

Im Focus: Tiny lasers from a gallery of whispers

New technique promises tunable laser devices

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...

Im Focus: Ultrafast snapshots of relaxing electrons in solids

Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!

When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...

Im Focus: Quantum Sensors Decipher Magnetic Ordering in a New Semiconducting Material

For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.

Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...

Im Focus: Fast, convenient & standardized: New lab innovation for automated tissue engineering & drug

MBM ScienceBridge GmbH successfully negotiated a license agreement between University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG) and the biotech company Tissue Systems Holding GmbH about commercial use of a multi-well tissue plate for automated and reliable tissue engineering & drug testing.

MBM ScienceBridge GmbH successfully negotiated a license agreement between University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG) and the biotech company Tissue Systems...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

“Lasers in Composites Symposium” in Aachen – from Science to Application

19.09.2017 | Event News

I-ESA 2018 – Call for Papers

12.09.2017 | Event News

EMBO at Basel Life, a new conference on current and emerging life science research

06.09.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Comet or asteroid? Hubble discovers that a unique object is a binary

21.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Cnidarians remotely control bacteria

21.09.2017 | Life Sciences

Monitoring the heart's mitochondria to predict cardiac arrest?

21.09.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>